Adapted FromU. S. Atomic Energy Commission / Division of Technical Information
"What is radiation? You can't see it; taste it; smell it; feel it, or hear it! Because the nerves do not register this phenomenon.
"Radiation is that which is emitted from the nucleus of an unstable atom, which will transmute to a stable atom atom. And, when it goes from one transformation to another, and another, etc., it may go through—from the original unstable element through a number of elements before reaching a stable atom, forming a different element from the original one. And, if the number of protons of a number of these transformations stays the same, the stages it goes through form isomers of the original element, until it reaches a stable form, and not an isomer; but, a new element from that which it started.
"Transmutation is the change in the identity of a radioactive element, and this identity is due to the proton change. Thus, the identity of an element is defined by the number of protons in its nucleus.
"Uranium, a radioactive element, undergoes fourteen distinct tranformations, over billions of years, until its final transmutation is lead!
"This process of transmutation—the change in a radioactive element's identity, "transmutation," as a nucleus rids itself of its energy excess and rearranges itself is known as "Decay"!
"The universe is made of a mixture of a few basic chemicals called elements. These elements consist of iron, gold, silver, calcium, and some 270 or so other elements, which include oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and zinc. To keep the identity of an element, the smallest piece of such is an atom. And this is a very small particle with lots of space in it.
"For instance, if we took a hydrogen atom and placed its nucleus, the center of the atom with its proton, at the center of New York City and its one electron moving around its center, the nucleus would be the size of a baseball. The electron would revolve around the nucleus covering vast amounts of water at the east coast and land in its journey.
"An atom may be considered the basic building blocks of the universe. For instance, ordinary table salt is sodium chloride, sodium plus chlorine held together with chemical binding, which may be looked upon as forces. Break these forces, as in digestion, and table salt comes apart forming ordinary sodium and chlorine atoms.
"Consider ordinary water, HOH; or, H2O. Hydrogen and oxygen atoms unite together through chemical force binding, such that two hydrogens connect with one oxygen atom, yielding water! A universal substance for life, as we know it.
"Therefore, gentlemen, all life and matter, as we know it, is composed of atoms. At one time, early in man's scientific evolution, it was thought that the atom was the smallest divisible unit of matter; now, we know, this is not so. It was discovered that the atom is made up of smaller particles, which are protons, electrons, and neutrons. The protons and neutrons 'live' in this tightly packed center of the atom, called the nucleus. The third atomic particle—incidently, a particle has mass and weight—which is the electron. The electrons of an element live their life, if undisturbed, circling (orbiting) around the nucleus, held there by the nuclear forces, namely, the proton(s).
The Helium Atom:
"Gentlemen, You Must Be Prepared With Knowledge And Equipment; And, Well–Versed In Practice & Application,"Dr. "B" continued with!
"The proton we have just mentioned is an electrical particle of rather large size compared to the electron, carrying a positive charge, whereas, the electron carries a negative charge; it too still is electrical in its nature. The electron is approximately 1/1840 of the weight of a proton. However, protons and neutrons we spoke of just moments ago are about the same weight.
"Recall, the neutrons and protons reside in the nucleus constituting the chief source of the atom's weight. Hence, that area, the nucleus, makes up the Atomic Weight; that is, neutrons plus protons; whereas, the protons by themselves constitute the identity of the element—which are the atom's chemical properties— and it is known, according to the number of protons present, as the Atomic Number of an element.
"Therefore, we can have an atom with one proton and one electron, which is hydrogen; or, one with eight protons and eight electrons; yet, the identifying mark of the element is the number of protons, as in the latter, which is oxygen, or some form of oxygen even though it has lost some electrons, as may be the case with hydrogen. The identifying characteristic is the number of protons, not the electrons.
"Take the element of which nuclear power, war, and energy is all about, and we come to the element of uranium with its 92 protons. The identity of an atom has nothing to do with its electrons; they just make the atom electrically stable; provided they are in the same number as protons of that atom. However, when an atom has the same number of protons, but different neutrons, this is the same element, but is known as an isomer or an isotope of that element.
"Electrons rotate in what is known as orbits; or now, called an electron cloud, about the nucleus which contains the neutrons and protons. The electrons are grouped in various areas, in their rotation about the center of the atom, called shells.
"At one length from the nucleus, there is one shell containing an electron(s); at another distance, still another shell; and so forth until all the electrons of that stable element have been accounted for in balance with the protons of that atom, which are, recall, the identifying particulate matter of an atom. But, when the neutrons' number changes and the protons' number stays the same, you have an Isomer or an isotope of the element or atom.
"Shells may be subdivided. And, recalling the hydrogen atom and New York City, keep in mind the enourmous spaces within an atom. I tell you this now, because some radiation, during a 'radiation storm' of a nuclear fallout, may just go right through an organism without disturbing anything, while the radiation that does hit tissue or organs within its atomic makeup can strike an electron, knocking it out of orbit with a domino effect further on down the line.
"The point being made is why, as you learned earlier, at the first blinding flash, hit the ground immediately, hopefully getting behind a wall, in a culvert, in a gully, etc., so you can receive much less radiation and its effects. And, doing so, you may have just given your body the chance it needs to overcome any radiation effects through the natural rebuilding and repairing process; or, the initial radiation, because you fell to the ground behind a rock wall, and so–forth, the radiations just went through empty space of the atoms making you up, saving your life or preserving you from disease!
"Lack of knowledge and not knowing what to do in the first few seconds to minutes of a nuclear attack, is what is going to get people killed when it comes, according to Dr. Brodsky and other knowledgeable Health Physicists. Some he calls 'Clowns,' Pseudoscientists, and Misinformed scientists. One was using defective methods of analysis;hence, giving false information that would not save lives; but, get people killed!—See Actions For Survival, by Allen Brodsky, pp., 10, 33, 93.
"In short, there are a lot of highly educated idiots out there who are putting out information that will cause people to panic and get themselves killed, or that will cause people to believe, that there is nothing they can do to survive radiation and fallout.
"Coupled with this, will be the Panic that does the killing days and week later, because, not knowing what to do after the detonation(s) will cause inadvertent behavior, resulting in death!"
Dr. "B" Then Spoke On: Radiation & Radioactivity
There are some 350 plus atoms in our environment, with 70 or so radioactive. As we mentioned above, an atom seeks to become stable; thus, when we have a radioactive nuclide (radioactive atom), it is emitting or ejecting part of its center mass, the nucleus, and as it does so, it, over a period of time, changes into a stable non–radioactive atom. In the process of emitting nuclear material, it sometimes releases electromagnetic energy also from the nucleus, it can become; or, is on its way to becoming in days, weeks, years, or billions of years, a stable atom. This released energy and/or particulate matter from its nucleus is called, Radiation!
The Inspector EXP:
Alpha, beta, and gamma radiation are the three main types we are interested in and for measuring with our meters.
Alpha radiation is a radiation known as Particulate Radiation. When this radiation happens, there are two neutrons and two protons that have been released or ejected from the nucleus as a single particle. It is a helium nucleus.
Beta radiation is a high speed electron, also ejected or released from the nucleus of an atom. This is so because the neutron consists of an electron (the ejected part) and a proton, which goes to add to the protons of the nucleus. This happens because in an unstable atom's nucleus, the neutron converts to an electron and a proton.
Gamma radiation is energy! Released energy from an unstable atom. This energy is electrical and magnetic in essence. It is similar, except for the amount of energy it has, as that of light, ultraviolet radiations, radio waves, etc. X Rays are gamma rays, differing only in the source from which they come.
Whether it be particles of radiation, or the energy of radiation, they interact with atoms of matter. In living organisms, some is good; and too much can be detrimental.
The distance radiation travels is dependent upon the energy present for particular radiation and frequency of the gamma rays. Alpha particles are the heaviest and can be stopped by a sheet of paper; whereas, betas, with more energy can penetrate the horney layer of the skin and cause beta–burns. They are stopped by a sheet of aluminum foil.
Having no mass, gamma radiation (rays) is stopped by sheets of thick lead; or, several feet of dense earth or concrete.
There is a fourth type of radiation, neutrons, which will be discussed later, as there may be neutron bombs unleashed on our cities.
"When matter becomes exposed to radiations, things happen to it; if it didn't, we would consider it a phenomenon of interesting caliber. However, when an animal is exposed to radiation, things happen to it, the same as other matter. But, we can see the results in an animal, say a person, rather quickly, if large amounts of radiation strike the person. He develops prodromal symptoms first, then he gets quite sick and may even die!
"Therefore, gentlemen, you must keep the charts handed out to you periodically throughout this trek, handy and know the safe limits you must hold yourself to and family members when 'The Radiations Come!'
"One can receive external radiations from outside the body, such as alpha, and/or, beta. The alphas, as said earlier, do not penetrate the skin and can be brushed off, provided one knows what to do in a radiation fallout, if caught out–of–doors. But, beta radiation can penetrate the skin down to the dermal layer, causing beta burns and serious damage. This is why one should have with them at all times, during Fallout, Silver Sulfadiazine Cream or Colloidal Silver in a spray bottle. The Silver will help stop serious infections from opportunistic organisms on the skin.
"Gamma Radiation is more penetrating than the other two radiations. It often causes bone marrow myleoproliferative diseases, dysfunctions such that the bone marrow is damaged and as such, cannot make blood cells!
"If one swallows alpha particulates, then he is radiated from inside his body, causing various dysfunctions and disease. When one breathes in; or swallows radiation particulates, that person receives radiation from internal sources that he breathed in, swallowed, or ingested. With Gamma Rays, regardless of whether the source is external or internal, a problem can exist, depending on how long the exposure is.
"As you know, men, orbital electrons can be freed from their neutral atoms by Radiation, and this process is called Ionization.
"Therefore, this results in two particles, called an ion pair. There is a positive charge left on the atom from losing the electron, and there is the electron with a negative charge on it. Hence, we have two species, a positive one and a negative one. And the alpha, beta, and gamma radiations are therefore known as ionizing radiations.
"Keep in mind, radiation is just one method that produces ionization of neutral atoms. Then, the ions can fly around; trying to gain back their charges, creating auto oxidation; that is, more and more free radicals are produced. Thus, you have just learned of another cause of free radical damage, aka "aging," in the body. If the body does not right itself with radiation medicines, or nutraceuticals, and other modalities, such as bentonite in the gut for those particulates swallowed, then sickness can result.
"When an alpha particle is moving away from the nucleus and collides with another electron of the original atom; or, as most commonly thought of, as in irradiating other objects, those alpha or beta particles are mainly 'absorbed' by another electron in another atom's orbit. Regardless of where the collision takes place, in the original atom or another, the energy is 'absorbed.' This collision with that electron gives enough energy to that electron to overcome the nuclear forces of attraction holding it in its orbit, to be ejected from its orbit. And, again, we see an 'Ion Pair' formed as discussed moments ago.
"The particle, after numerously striking (collisions), loses energy and is less and less until it is zero. When a beta particle is de–energized completely, it becomes a free electron. And these are often absorbed by the positive ions, formed above to become Helium atoms.
"Gamma Rays (Gamma Radiation) undergoes a different stratagem. There are three different routes or processes which absorb its energy:
The Photoelectric Effect, whereby the total energy of the Gamma Ray is absorbed by the electron in an orbit that is in its path.
The Compton Effect. A process by which the orbital electron absorbs only part of the Gamma Ray's energy.
Pair Production, in which the Gamma Ray strikes the nucleus of an atom and all of its energy is absorbed there, and itself, is annihilated, forming an electron with a positive charge known as a 'Positron' and a electron with its negative charge.
Let's Now Talk About Units & Exposure Vs. Dose!
"In everything we do, we have to have some way of measuring something, and that 'something' must have units, such that we can communicate about the 'something' with others. Hence, there are units for Radiation and Dose Exposures.
"They are the Roentgen, (R); the Rad, the REM; and newer units, as we have learned, the Seiverts. And we still have the Grays, and Curies.
The Roentgen (R), measures a certain amount or quantity of gamma radiation or X radiation. This produces a unit of electrostatic charge in a gram of air, 0.00123.
The Rad measures any amount or quantity of ionizing radiation which delivers a certain amount of energy in 100 ergs per gram of matter that has been irradiated.
The Rem is a measure of a quantity of radiation having the same effect biologically in the body as a
Rad of gamma or X radiation.
"Roentgen (R) is applied to gamma or X radiations, as noted above; the Rad and the Rem can be used for measuring radiation that is ionizing. The Rem takes into consideration the effects biologically against alpha, beta, and gamma and X radiations.
"How much has one absorbed, using a Dosimeter to give us this absorbed dose when one has been in a surrounding radiation field? Then, using the charts we have handed out to you during this Trek, you can act accordingly in terms of continuing what you are doing in an emergency work; or, you may have reached a limit such that you should move to immediate shelter, allowing the body to do repair and rebuild, if the dose absorbed is not too great and you have the proper equipment to tell you when to get into good shelter for radiation!
"In an emergency, when seconds, minutes, and hours count, we are not concerned with fractions of these units being discussed. We are concerned with accuracy and as we have given on those other mountains back there to our right, for practical purposes and applications, we round off, such that: One R = One Rem = One Rad = 0.01 Gy (Gray) = 0.01 Sv (Sievert).
1 R = 1 Rem = 1Rad = 0.01Gy = 0.01 Sv
Do This ImmediatelyAt The First Sign of An Eerie Or Strange Brilliant Light:
Why You Must Know & Understand Your Meter, The Conversions, & Have The Charts Proffered.The Following Maps Show The Spread of Fallout After A Large Assumed Attack On Military & Civilian Targets.Hour By Hour The Fallout Spreads & Overlaps Until, After 24 Hours, It Almost Covers The Nation!
"Because these units specify fairly large quantities of radiation, dose rate usually uses measurements in terms of milli, such as mR, mrem, and mrad, where 'm' means milli for 1/1000 of. Dose Rate refers to the amount of dose per unit of time of the dose received.
"Therefore, the units often seen on older and new equipment is mR/hr, mrems/hr, mrads/hr."
"Dose generally refers to the quantity of radiation absorbed . Hence, radiation dose is the amount of energy absorbed into the tissues of an organism, man, in this case.
"When we speak of Exposure, we generally are referencing radiation's ability to produce ionization. And, in a person, this can be dangerous if the radiations are high, as in a nuclear fallout immediately after the blast.
"Therefore, we can say, dose refers to the amount of energy one absorbs from radiation; whereas, exposure are the ion pairs created from gamma radiation in a body. Gamma Rays are one of the things, including the other, we must be on the alert for as it can penetrate through homes, cracks, etc.
"But, in alpha and beta particles, just get out of the 'radiation storm'; dust off in an anteroom, set aside for this in advance, prior to going into the reinforced shelter. This is another reason you must have meters to determine if anyone has brought in alpha, beta, radiations with them; and, gamma rays are getting in somehow!
The Curie & Other Terms Used With Radiation:
"The Curie is another unit, as discussed previously, associated with disintegrations per minute (dpm); or, dividing by 60 gives disintegrations per second, (dps). Normally, the Curie is in d/m.
A curie of material that is radioactive is how much or the amount of material containing 3.7 x 1010 (37 billion) atoms that will disintegrate per second or minute, releasing radiation.
The main thing to grasp is when you are not using a dosimeter to measure radiation, you are using a probe that is measuring only in the direction the probe is facing, as given below; therefore, the probes of most instruments will not receive all the disintegrations, as the probe only receives that in the direction it is pointed in the radiation field.
The Source is 16 x 100 = 1600 d/m.
The Probe is detecting 400 c/m.
The Counting Efficiency is 1/4 = 0.25.
However, if you know the Counting Efficiency (c/e) of the instrument you are using, then taking the Counts Per Minute one can find Disintegrations Per minute using:
CE = c/m ÷ d/m
"The ratio, as given immediately above, of the number of events detected (viz. counted) per minute to the number of events that do occur per minute (d/m) is the Counting Efficiency of the meter.
Counts per minute (c/m) are the actual counted events (radiations emited from the source) by the meter and is recorded as you watch the digital readout or the needle movement of older machines.
Keep in mind men, one Ci (Curie) = 37 billion (37 x 10+9) Bq (Becquerels).
And a Gray (Gy) is a unit of radiation dose, like the rad, "defines an amount of energy deposited per gram of material or tissue." A Gray = 100 rad. Any confusion on this latter, could be disastrous, if one equates a Gray to a Rad!
Print Out & Keep This Chart On You At All Times In Several Places & With Your Meters! And Know How To Do The Conversions...
Dr. "B"s Has Just Received This Certificate(s) . . .
It Makes One Wonder, Just What Does He Know That's ComingThat He Is Not Telling Us About...I Understand...'He's Burning Even More Daylight...Than Ever...'He's Researching & Studying So Intensively...
About this video:
Source: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
This video animation shows a hypothetical 10kT detonation near an American city, with the relevant response zones surrounding the epicenter.
Notice the time (hours:minutes) after detonation in the upper right hand corner of the video.
Physical Damage zones
Red: Severe Damage Zone
Orange: Moderate Damage Zone
Yellow: Light Damage Zone
Radiation Fallout Zones: footprint of fallout shrinks over time with radioactive decay
Dark purple: Dangerous Fallout Zone (bounded by >10 R/hour line)
Light purple: Fallout zone (bounded by 0.01 R/h line)
This Is Coming Folks...& On Our Own Soil!Dr. "B" Taught Us All This!
Two Very Sobering Thoughts:
FromThe Two-Fold Chastisement:Visions of the Coming Earth Changes
Many holy people, seers, and other instruments of God have referred in their prophecies to the vast numbers of dead that will cover the earth when the Chastisement is over. And…there will be no one to bury the bodies. Rose Colomba spoke of "large multitudes" of corpses.
Saint Gaspar du Bufalo, founder of the Precious Blood Fathers, and who died in 1837, said "The earth will be covered with cadavers. All survivors will therefore think they are alone."
Then, Dr. "B" Gave The Men This Chart To Use With The Nuclear Decay Calculations He Taught:Periodic Chart
An Alpha Particle is a helium nucleus 4
2He2+ with a plus 2 charge.
A Beta Particle is a high speed; high energy electron. It is designated by the Greek Letter beta (ß). And the Beta Particle, also known as a 'negatron emission' and is indistinguishable from an ordinary electron, represented by: 0
Ordinary Orbital Electron
An orbital electron is represented by 0
A positron is a beta particle whose charge is positive, contrasted to a negatively charged beta particle by 0
A proton is represented by the following symbol and this symbol indicates that it is the nucleus of a hydrogen atom with an atomic number of one and a mass number of one. +1
A neutron is a neutral particle residing in the nucleus of an atom.+1
In the aftermath of a radiological emergency the public will see radiation and its potential hazards described in many different and sometimes confusing ways. This primer is intended to help journalists and community leaders understand these terms.
Activity or radioactivity is measured by the number of atoms disintegrating per unit time.
A becquerel is 1 disintegration per second. A curie is 37 billion disintegrations per second, which is the number of disintegrations per second in 1 gram of pure radium.
A disintegrating atom can emit a beta particle, an alpha particle, a gamma ray, or some combination of all these, so becquerels or curies alone do not provide enough information to assess the risk to a person from a radioactive source.
Disintegrating atoms emit different forms of radiation
–—alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, or x-rays. As radiation moves through the body, it dislodges electrons from atoms, disrupting molecules. Each time this happens, the radiation loses some energy until it escapes from the body or disappears. The energy deposited indicates the number of molecules disrupted. The energy the radiation deposits in tissue is called the dose, or more correctly, the absorbed dose. The units of measure for absorbed dose are the gray (1 joule per kilogram of tissue) or the rad (1/100 of a gray). The cumulative dose is the total absorbed dose or energy deposited by the body or a region of the body from repeated or prolonged exposures.
Alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, and x-rays affect tissue in different ways. Alpha particles disrupt more molecules in a shorter distance than gamma rays. A measure of the biologic risk of the energy deposited is the dose equivalent. The units of dose equivalent are sieverts or rem. Dose equivalent is calculated by multiplying the absorbed dose by a quality factor.
Sometimes a large number of people have been exposed to a source of ionizing radiation. To assess the potential health effects, scientists often multiply the exposure per person by the number of persons and call this the collective dose. Collective dose is expressed as “person-rem” or “person-sieverts.”
Abbreviations for Radiation Measurements
When the amounts of radiation being measured are less than 1, prefixes are attached to the unit of measure as a type of shorthand. This is called scientific notation and is used in many scientific fields. The table below shows the prefixes for radiation measurement and their associated numeric notations.
How Much Is That?
1 X 10-18
1 X 10-15
1 X 10-12
1 X 10-9
1 X 10-6
1 X 10-3
1 X 10-2
When the amount to be measured is 1,000 (i.e., 1 X 103) or higher, prefixes are attached to the unit of measure to shorten very large numbers (also scientific notation). The table below shows the prefixes used in radiation measurement and their associated numeric notations.
How Much Is That?
1 X 103
1 X 106
1 X 109
1 X 1012
1 X 1015
1 X 1018
Health Effects of Radiation Exposure
Exposure to radiation can cause two kinds of health effects. Deterministic effects are observable health effects that occur soon after receipt of large doses. These may include hair loss, skin burns, nausea, or death. Stochastic effects are long-term effects, such as cancer. The radiation dose determines the severity of a deterministic effect and the probability of a stochastic effect.
The object of any radiation control program is to prevent any deterministic effects and minimize the risk for stochastic effects. When a person inhales or ingests a radionuclide, the body will absorb different amounts of that radionuclide in different organs, so each organ will receive a different organ dose.
Federal Guidance Report 11 (FGR-11) from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) lists dose conversion factors for all radionuclides. This report can be downloaded from http://www.epa.gov/radiation/pubs.html, under "Limiting Values of Radionuclide Intake and Air Concentration and Dose Conversion Factors for Inhalation, Submersion, and Ingestion, Report No. 11 (PDF)". The dose conversion factor for each organ is the number of rem delivered to that organ by each curie or becquerel of intake of a specific radioisotope.
External, Internal, and Absorbed Doses
A person can receive an external dose by standing near a gamma or high-energy beta-emitting source. A person can receive an internal dose by ingesting or inhaling radioactive material. The external exposure stops when the person leaves the area of the source. The internal exposure continues until the radioactive material is flushed from the body by natural processes or decays.
A person who has ingested a radioactive material receives an internal dose to several different organs. The absorbed dose to each organ is different, and the sensitivity of each organ to radiation is different. FGR-11 assigns a different weighting factor to each organ. To determine a person’s risk for cancer, multiply each organ’s dose by its weighting factor, and add the results; the sum is the effective dose equivalent (“effective” because it is not really the dose to the whole body, but a sum of the relative risks to each organ; and “equivalent” because it is presented in rem or sieverts instead of rads or gray).
Committed and Total Effective Dose Equivalents
When a person inhales or ingests a radionuclide, that radionuclide is distributed to different organs and stays there for days, months, or years until it decays or is excreted. The radionuclide will deliver a radiation dose over a period of time. The dose that a person receives from the time the nuclide enters the body until it is gone is the committed dose. FGR-11 calculates doses over a 50-year period and presents the committed dose equivalent for each organ plus the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE).
A person can receive both an internal dose and an external dose. The sum of the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) and the external dose is called the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE).