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Protective Measures & Decontamination Procedures!Part V.The Following Is Adapted From Radiation Safety In Shelters
Getting Your Radiological Instruments Ready For Action!
As you should know by now, your radiological survey meters may possibly save your life! Therefore, treat them with respect. Do not let children play with them; don't drop them, and keep liquid spills off them.
In your Home Fallout Shelter, you are the person designated for the care and operation of each ratemeter (survey meters). Also, you are the person, as fallout shelter monitor and owner, responsible for dosimeter use and care and for the dosimeter chargers.
If radioactive fallout settles on a shelter and its surroundings, people in the shelter will want to know where to go and what to do for the best protection. You can expect some to maybe all to Panic, like in Hawaii! Some will Develop 'Running Fits' as happened in Dresden, Germany during the Bombings.
People in your Home Fallout Shelter will want to know whether they are going to get Sick and Possibly Die from radiation exposure. After the worst radiation has faded away, they will want to know the risks of going outside, how long can they stay outside, and which locations will result in the least radiation exposure.
This is why we gave you the following chart: 'Radiation Precautions for Unsheltered Dose Rate' to print out; place with your long-range meters, and commit to Memory!
To answer their questions, you will need special instruments. Watch out for what is being sold now! They are too low-range and will get you not only confused; but DEAD!
The levels of radiation from fallout from nuclear weapons can be much higher than those encountered in peacetime conditions.
The radiation instruments developed for use by operators of nuclear reactors, by radiation therapists in hospitals, or by crewmen of nuclear submarines and ships, and for hazmat operations, are generally NOT suitable for the needs of people caught in the radioactive fallout of a nuclear war. Most of them do not know this! And this will get them and anyone with them killed or very sick. Be prepared for this...
These commercial instruments for peacetime purposes usually do not have the higher ranges which may be needed for wartime use.
The SURVEY METER(s) we have been discussing are designed to help you find the places of lowest radiation intensity and to indicate where you should not go because of high radiation levels! The DOSIMETER is designed to help you estimate the total amount of radiation to which your body has been exposed.
If one has no radiological instruments, then you will need communications with those who have them. You will need information from others, if the Grid is still up--Don't Count On It!
This May Be Your Only Warning of the Arrival of A Radiation Hazard. Keep in mind, your only warning, even though fallout particles may be seen, heard, and felt under some conditions, the Fallout Radiation Itself is invisible, silent and cannot be felt! Unless, you under something like Chernobyl in 1986—extremely large amounts of radiation.
The best protection is provided by getting as much mass as possible between you and the fallout. Walk through your Home Fallout Shelter and get an idea where the best protected area might or could be. Quite often, but not always, the areas having the least amount of daylight reaching them will provide the best protection. This is because doors may have a glass window, and regular windows are harder to shield against gamma radiation coming through them.
Prepare Your Survey Meter(s) For Use
First: The survey meter has two controls: the range–selector switch under the handle and the zero control on the corner. A carrying strap, often yellow, is often supplied with the meter if you get it from 'store.advancedmart.com'. This is important when fallout is coming down as you may need your hands to do other things and you cannot afford to put down the instrument.
Installing the Battery in the Survey Meter. This instrument is powered by a single D–cell battery. The same as found in large flashlights. The battery is installed as follows:
Turn the range–selector switch (the switch under the handle) to the 'Off' position.
Open the case by unfastening the case clips at each end.
Use the handle to lift the top part of the survey meter out of the bottom part of the case. The top may be laid on a flat surface or held in the hand by the handle while installing the battery.
Don't let sand, moisture or dust to get in the case. If fallout particles get inside the case, you will get a false reading! Also, don't let anyone touch the various interior parts or the circuit board. Grease or sweat on the electronic components may cause a malfunction. If this happens, use a deoxide or contact spray to remove the grease or sweat, and for that matter if any fallout gets into and onto the circuit board or interior parts.
There may be a packet of desiccant inside the survey meter case. Replace with a fresh new one! Moisture can cause shorting and result in false readings; or, none at all.The desiccant will keep small electric currents from leaking across insulators and prevent corrosion.
Install the D–cell battery in the rectangular plastic battery holder mounted on the inside of the top cover. The battery holder's floor is marked with a (+) and (-) sign for which ends to place the D–cell battery. If not so marked, the positive sign (+) can be identified with by a raised center post. Insert the battery's positive terminal into the battery holder with the plus sign on the floor of the battery holder. The two negative signs will come together. However, before insertion, dip a cotton tip swab into a little contact cleaner and clean both ends of the battery and where the battery's positive and negative ends come into contact with battery holder's contacts. Do this several times and rub briskly; yet gently!
Reinstalling the case of the survey meter: Lower the top part of the survey meter into the bottom part of the case. If there is a small rubber pad glued on one end of the inside floor of the bottom case, turn the case so the pad lines up under the battery.
Fasten the case clips.
Checking the Battery and the Instrument. This is known as the 'Operational Check'. Each time a battery is inserted in the survey meter, an operational check should be made to make sure the battery has been put in correctly and that it has enough energy to run the meter. An operational check should also be made each time before using the survey meter to make sure the meter is operating properly. An Operational Check is made as follows:
Turn the range–selector switch (the switch underneath the needle) to the "Zero" position. Wait a full two minutes for the instrument to warm up before doing anything else with the meter. One of the components in the survey meter is a special electronic tube (an electrometer tube), which must be warmed up before it can operate properly.
After waiting two minutes for warmup, rotate the knob marked "Zero" (the knob on the corner) until the needle on the meter points to "0" (zero). If the needle doesn't move when the ZERO knob is rotated, turn the range–selector switch to "OFF" and remove the battery. Clean the battery contacts and install a new battery, unless the old one is known to be good. If the needle still doesn't move with rotation of the zero control, then the instrument is faulty and should be sent to KI4U.com for repair.
After the instrument has been zeroed, turn the range–selector switch to "Circuit Check" and hold it there against the spring pressure which will return the switch to "OFF" when the switch is released. While holding the switch in the "Circuit Check" position, the needle should climb to the upper part of the meter scale in or near the area marked "Circuit Check." A reading of 3 or higher (even though the area marked "Circuit Check" begins at 3.5, not 3.0) will tell you three things:
The Battery was installed properly,
The Battery has enough energy to run the meter, and . . .
The circuits involved in this part of the test are operating properly.
If the needle does not climb up to 3 or higher while the range–selector switch is being held on "Circuit Check," remove the battery, clean battery holder contacts with electrical contact cleaner and install a new battery after cleaning the new battery's positive and negative contacts. You can get electrical contact cleaner at an automotive parts dealer. Then, repeat the steps above including the zero adjustment. If the needle still does not climb up to 3 or higher during the circuit check, the instrument is faulty and should be sent to KI4U.com for refurbishing.
The Following Is Very Important:
After the survey meter has passed the circuit check satisfactorily, rotate the range–selector switch to each of the positions marked "X100", "X10", "X1", "X0.1." Let the switch rest at each position momentarily, and observe the position of the needle on the meter. If there is no gamma radiation present beside that from normal background radiation, the needle should remain approximately at zero at each position of the switch. If it moves up–scale, it should not move up more than three of the smallest divisions (not above 0.3 reading on the dial) when the range–selector points to "X100," "X10" or "X1." When the range–selector switch points to "X0.1," the needle should not move up–scale from zero more than six of the smallest divisions (not above 0.6 reading on the dial).
The Following Will Tell You What To Do About The Above:
This smallest needle movement, called up–scale leakage, will not affect the usefulness of the survey meter in detecting hazardous radiation levels from fallout. If the up–scale leakage is greater than the limits stated above, the amount of up–scale leakage usually can be reduced significantly by leaving the instrument on for one to 16 hours with the rang–selector switch in the"ZER0" position. This procedure reconditions the electrometer tube. If excess up–scale leakage still exists after 16 hours of reconditioning, and there is no fallout gamma radiation present, other problems exist. If this be so, replace the desiccant you placed in earlier and try this operation again for one to 16 hours; we have found 16 hours works best.
If you still have a problem, send it to KI4U.com, explaining the problem to them on the phone and with a note in the meter case explaining the same as told on the phone.
Be sure the range–selector switch is in the "Off" position when you are not using the Survey Meter for anything! And for long storage, take the battery out.
Reading The Survey Meter. After doing the Operational Check, you are now ready to measure how much gamma radiation that you have been expose to at the meter's location; and, since you have if held by a shoulder strap, you will know the Roentgens in One Hour you have been exposed to.
Hold the meter steadily in one direction and at waist height about two feet from your body; your body will shield some gamma rays from behind you; but, the meter will measure the front and sides of one and receive some gamma from behind. The reason the meter is held away from the body is to reduce shielding of the Survey Meter by the body.
Now, turn the range–selector switch clockwise (from "X100" to "X10," then from "X10" to "X1" to "X0.1" ) until you find the range position that results in the highest reading of the needle on the dial (not over 5). Pause at each each range–selector position for a moment or two to see how fast the needle climbs.
With the range–selector switch in the "X0.1" position, it will take 10–15 seconds for the needle to stop moving. It will take less time for the needle to reach a steady reading when the range–selector switch is at the higher multipliers ("X,1" "X10," "X100"). There are five numbers printed on the meter dial, starting with "0" on the left and ending with "5" on the right.
Between each printed number and the next, there are ten divisions. The dial reading is obtained by writing down the number that appears nearest the needle on its left side, placing a decimal point to the right of that number, and then writing down that the number corresponding to the number of the nearest division mark to which the need points to the right of that number, and then writing down the number corresponding to the number of the nearest division mark to which the needle points to the right of the printed number.
For instance the dial reading in Figures 3–2 and 3–3 further down, left is 1.4. And its adjacent figure is 0.4. To see more on this, click below.
The radiation exposure rate is obtained by multiplying the dial reading by the number following the "X" at the position to which the range–selector switch points.
When the dial reading is 0.5 or less, the range–selector switch should be switched one position clockwise to get a more accurate reading. In this position, where the switch points to a lower multiplier, the needle will move more for a given change in radiation rate, so you will be able to detect this change easier. For example, the range–selector switch in Figure 3–3 near the end of this document is set at"X10" and the dial reading is only 0.4, for a radiation exposure rate of 3 R/hr.
A more accurate reading of 4.1 R/hr is obained for the same situation by switching the range–selector switch to "X1" shown below in Figure 3–4, where the dial reading is 4.1
If the needle climbs past 5, the range–selector switch should to a higher range counterclockwise until the meter's needle remains on the scale.
Troubleshooting the Survey Meter. If you have trouble with the survey meter, it will probably be due to a poor battery, faulty battery installation, or poor battery contacts. Spare batteries should be kept in the shelter. With a good, new battery properly installed, the survey meter should have an operating life of about 200 hours under normal operating conditions. Dirty or corroded contacts can be cleaned with a pencil eraser, steel wool, or by very carefully scraping the contact surfaces with a knife. Bits of eraser, dirt, or steel wool must be very carefully and thoroughly removed from inside the case.
If radioactive dust gets on the outside of the survey meter, it should be carefully cleaned off with a cloth dampened in a mild soap solution. Instruments can be kept in a plastic bag to prevent contamination. If the inside of the meter acidentally becomes contaminated, the instrument should be taken to a clean area where the inside of the bottom case may be carefully cleaned off with a cloth dampened in a mild soap solution. It must be THOROUGHLY DRIED before putting the case together. The electronic components mounted on the inside of the top cover may be brushed and dusted off with a dry brush and/or blown out with dry air. A damp cloth should NOT be used on any of the electronic components. If the remaining interior contamination causes a slightly increased reading only in the "X0.1" range, the instrument will still be useful.
Do not try to make any calibration adjustments or any repairs on the survey meter. Special equipment and specially trained people are necessary to do these jobs.
Reducing Your Total Radiation Exposure!
Get These Items & Carry Them In Your Run Bag!
You should get a Big Berkey with extra filters; a Katadyne (pocket water filter), and/or make the following from the Schematic given. They all remove Radioactive Particulate Matter:
From Radiological Emergency Manual For Livestock, Poultry, And Animal Products:
You Need To Practice Much on Reading The Scales of Your Long Range Survey Meters
The Stress Is Going To Be Horrendous And Will Cause You Mistakes Which Will Cost You And Your Shelterees Your Lives!
The Red Needle Points To 3 And The Range–Selector Switch Is Set At X100. Therefore, 3 times X100 = 300 R/hr.
The Second Red Needle Points At 4.5 With The Ranger–Selector Switch Set At X10; Thus, 4.5 Times X10 = 45 R/hr.
You Need This Following Intelligence Data:Adapted From Radiation Safety In Shelters
How Nuclear Radiation Harms Our Bodies!
Alpha Radiation is stopped by the outer skin layer (Epidermis) and isn't harmful unless fallout particles are inhaled or swallowed. In this case, the alpha radiation may cause serious damage to the tissues inside the lungs or one swallows enough particles to become a casualty from alpha radiation during the emergency. It was once thought that they were too large to cause much damage; but, since Chernobyl in 1986, it is now recognized that severe problems can exist, as there is no Epidermis that can block them inside the lungs as there is on the outside of the body!
Beta Radiation is much more penetrating than alpha radiation and may cause skin burns if a lot of fallout particles less than a few days old stay on the skin for a few hours! In Chernobyl at the Power Plant Meltdown, one of the first responders, a fireman who was there on the roof for only a few minutes, died from Beta Burns to the lungs later...The Lungs Rotted!
Gamma Radiation is considered the most dangerous of the three kinds of fallout radiation, as it can penetrate the entire body and cause cell damage to all parts, to the organs, blood, and bones. It is often said, one can't smell radiation, taste it, feel it, etc., because the nerve cells are not directly stimulated by nuclear radiation as they are by pressure and temperature. But, again, Chernobyl had not happened when this was recorded. At Chernobyl, many felt great heat in the body; a great taste of metal in the mouth; and huge headaches. We just have not had, at this time before Chernobyl, enough radiation hit a human being, as did at Chernobyl!
How Do We Measure Quantities of Radiation?
As give in many of The Kong Reports, using a Dosimeter measuring in dose exposure (Roentgen, "R"), and Survey Meters measuring in Roentgens per hour (R/hr). These are rate meters.
Symptoms of Radiation Injury:
Although nuclear radiation from natural background damages some cells in our bodies and destroys others, we do not notice this damage. Billions of cells in our bodies die natural deaths every hour and are replaced by normal growth and repair processes. We feel no injury or sickness from exposure to nuclear radiation at the levels which exist in our natural surroundings.
But, if our bodies are exposed to gamma radiation from fallout which may be many thousands of times higher than the levels of natural background nuclear radiation, there will be so many cells damaged or destroyed that some of us may become sick, and some may even die.
Some or all of the symptoms of injury may appear within the first three days after exposure.
[Now Here is where Dr. "B" went to town with what follows, explaining in detail where a Radeff Officer must know something or he/she is going to have literal hell with some of the Shelterees in the Home Fallout Shelter!]
These symptom include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, irritability, a lack of energy and a feeling of being tired to extreme tiredness!
If you notice when Fallout Is coming down, someone becomes rather irritable; that may project in argumentiveness or even belligerency, and your shelter is safe according to various charts you are in possession of, then that person has frightened him/herself into a state of anxiety that is projecting into more and deeper anxiety. Feel the brow and sides of the neck of the person; it hot, he has fever too and this can generate more to his irritability! Always have something on hand to control fever.
However, as we have given recently in The Kong Report, 'finding and Covering Up "Leaks in Gamma Shielding," this person or persons may have received a high dose of gamma radiation and is beginning to exhibit symptoms of ARS, Acute Radiation Syndrome. Then, get that person to bed with Dr. "B"s measures for controlling radiation damage to the body with certain nutrients.
Actually, all should be on those nutrients when expecting a nuclear attack or now!
The symptoms may disappear and then come back after a week to three weeks later, sometimes with diarrhea, sore throat, loss of hair, and a tendency to bleed easily. He will demonstrate a lessening ability to fight against infections; that is why we have recommended you store Tetracycline, a broad–base antibiotic with little complications of today's antibiotics!
Chances of illness from infections are greater among those who are exposed to more than about 200 R (Use a dosimeter before, during, and after to ascertain this) because the higher radiation exposure damages the immune system in our bodies that helps fight diseases.
Dr. "B" feels we will literally see a 'Sea of Corpses' due to the PUFAs everyone is now eating and has been told to eat, whereas, Saturated Fat does not cause free radicals, as do the Omega Oils and other similar unsaturated fats!
Unless one receives a dose of 7-15 thousand Roentgens, as was done at Chernobyl, they are not radioactive; but, only radiocontaminated. Others at Chernobyl received and died shortly, a dose of 30,000 R!
Those receiving 7-15 thousand R who were finally taken to the Moscow hospital and those treating the irradiated of such roentgen levels, within a week later, became radioactive and died too!
Beta burns will result if a lot (enough to make you feel dirty, gritty, and grimy,) of fallout particles less than a few days old, stay on the skin for several hours!
Early symptoms of such skin contamination include itching and burning sensations. These may soon disappear. Darkened or raised skin areas or sores may appear within one or two weeks.
After two weeks or more, there may be a temporary loss of hair (it will return in about six months). The greater the exposure, the earlier the symptoms will appear, Beta burns will not be a problem if fallout particles are brushed or washed off promptly.
Wearing clothing such as gloves, hats, scarves, face-masks, and long-sleeved garments will help to prevent fallout particles from collecting on the skin; Also, have a White Umbrella!
Include also, a respirator, wide-brim hats with foil or plastic covering, long raincoat, and boots that come up under the raincoat for several inches!
Within a few days after fallout has arrived, its radioactivity will have decayed so much that beta radiation will not be a hazard under most circumstances, if you have prepared with the immediate above and have a whiskbroom and dustpan on your person too for dusting off when in a safe reception room of your Home Fallout Shelter.
However, it may be a problem in the first few weeks if you have to crawl or lie on the ground as may be necessary in rescue operations, and the skin is covered with dust which is not removed for many hours! Hence, you may have to crawl; Stand and Dust-Off; then, back to crawling, and dragging an injured person, etc., repeating the 'Stand & Dust-Off' Procedure every few minutes or so.
Adapted From Radiation Safety In Shelters
Water in covered containers and from underground sources will be safe. Water into which fallout particles have fallen may become unsafe to drink for a while, because radioactive iodine dissolves in water; that is, it goes into ionization or disassociates in solution--water, in this case.
Water that is collected from rooftops or other flat areas into cisterns, tanks, or other reservoirs, may have much higher concentrations of radioactivity than other sources of water if there is a rainfall shortly after fallout has arrived.
Rivers and streams that are fed mostly by water from the surface rather than from underground springs may also become contaminated by radioactive iodine if there is a rainfall in the first few days after fallout arrives.
Water in large, deep lakes, reservoirs, and rivers will probably be safe to drink (although it could still be unsafe due to other pollutants) within hours or days after fallout has arrived, because of dilution of the radioiodine into large volumes of water.
The radioactive problem will almost completely disappear in any water in a few weeks due to natural radioactive decay. The quantity of the radioactive iodine of the greatest concern will become half as much every eight days (the half-life is eight days)—provided no more nuclear bombs are bursting and fallout is rolling in.
[Dr. "B" was very strong on the above and below point for our safety and having potable (drinkable clean water)]
Radioisotopes that have dissolved in water cannot be removed by boiling or settling. The water can be purified by special filtering or chemical processes, one method being the filtration of water through several inches of soil or clay (not Sand!). He recommends one go now to amazon.com and get Bentonite (which is a clay mineral) Clay! Water filtered through soil MUST be disinfected either by boiling or by adding chemicals such as chlorine bleach with no scent, or household iodine. Check on your bleach container for the percentage it has of hypocholite and follow reccomendations below:
Everyone is into Sieverts now, and there is no chart to relate to damage from Sieverts; hence, you must convert Sieverts into the Rotengen System, which has a chart and go from there...
For those of you who just don’t get it, the ratio and proportion type of mathematics, i.e., going from Roentgens to Grays, or Sieverts, and back from Sieverts or Grays to Roentgens, Rads and Rems, here is a very easy way Dr. “B” showed me – Marvellous! – how to do this without using ratio and proportion.
Now here’s the big problem with anything. If you are out in a radiation storm as a RaDef officer, or your own home fallout shelter, or police officer, fireman, or normal American citizen that volunteered to be a first responder, the immense stress of being in a radiation storm and perhaps other nukes going off 100 miles away, and you see the flash, or hear it, or feel the earth vibrate, you’ve got to have a simple system to change from the Roentgen system to the Sievert system, or, more likely, from the Sievert system to the Roentgen system, to ascertain the tremendous relationship between disease from fallout and serious injury or death.
This false pride of 'The Macho Spirit' who is so SMART and can do it in his head is going to misread and misinterpret the results his meter returns. Avoid this Bastard~! Dr. "B" has been told by many he has taught this to, "Oh, I can do that in my head!" Dr. "B" asked this 'dead' soul, "Have you ever been in a war zone where someone(s) are going to kill you from one moment to the next?"
I was there, folks! The poor soul hem-hawed about. When his friends saw that, they deserted him. Later, they told Dr. "B", "Not only will his false pride get him killed, but anyone with him!"
Dr. Brocato invented the system he calls: The Left and Right of Things, for when one is under great stress, as in a radiation fallout storm. If you are given Roentgens, and you want to know how many Sieverts that is, you go to the left, two spots from the decimal point.
Let’s say you are given 100 Roentgens. How many Sieverts is that?
The decimal place in 100 is at the end of the last zero, but it doesn’t show because you are already there and don’t have any whole numbers going beyond it, or fractions. So, we go from the decimal two places to the left, two digits to the left. That is, the first zero and the second zero. And you end up placing a decimal at that spot two places from the right to the left, and that gives you 1 Sievert. So if you need to know this to report, you can easily find it out using a meter that measures only in Roentgens.
The Roentgen chart we keep sending up tells you in no uncertain terms that what danger you may be in when you read the chart. There is no such chart for Sieverts. Why the Sievert system was invented is a lot of people’s question. Many newer digital meters measure only in Sieverts.
Remember, the information on this chart, done in Roentgens, was obtained from many sources, including the results of the atomic explosions at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan, and many Nazi-like experiments performed on prisoners, minorities and poor Americans (without their permission and unbeknownst to them!) by hospitals and universities and funded by the United States government. Read about it in The Plutonium Files.
We have found a way of relating the two systems, which is:
1 Roentgen = 1 rad = 1 rem = 0.01Gy (Gray) = 0.01 Sv (Sievert).
Now, let’s say you have measured 50 Sieverts On the Sievert system, going to the Roentgen system, you go from right to left of the decimal. Herein is the problem. Let’s say you have 50 Sieverts. Where is the decimal? Go from the decimal to the right, two places, placing zeros, as in: 50.00
This gives you, when you move the decimal two places to the right: 5,000 Roentgens!
And herein is going to be a problem for those who know the old system: “Oh, 50! That’s not too much! That’s safe!”
And indeed it wouldn’t be dangerous, if that 50 was Roentgens! But it isn’t. It is 50 Sieverts.
When you do the conversion, 50 Sieverts is 5,000 Roentgens! And that is way beyond a killing dose!
So remember: The Left and Right of Things System. If you are given Sieverts, you go from the left to the right of the decimal point two places, to find how many Roentgens that is. This way, you have a chart that will tell you, in Roentgens, what kind of danger you are in. There appears to be no such chart for Sieverts.A quick review:
1. Given Roentgens, to get Sieverts, go to the left two places from the decimal.
2. Given Sieverts, to get Roentgens, go to the right two places from the decimal.
But you firefighters, you police officers, you first responders! This is what you are going to have to deal with:
"A number of agencies and recommending bodies have suggested emergency dose guidance levels, or reference levels, for radiation workers. The EPA has recommended emergency dose guidance levels of 100 mSv for protecting valuable property and 250 mSv for life saving and protection of large populations (EPA 1991). EPA has further recognized that volunteers may exceed the 250-mSv guidance level, based on full awareness of the risks, to conduct life-saving procedures. The NCRP addresses “emergency occupational
“Exposures during emergency actions that do not involve life-saving should, to the extent possible, be controlled to the occupational dose limits. Where this cannot be accomplished, it is recommended that a limit of 0.5 Sv effective dose and an equivalent dose of 5 Sv to the skin be applied, which is consistent with ICRP recommendations.”—Public Protection from Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Terrorism; Brodsky, Johnson, Jr, Goans, Editors
Does this make any sense to you? There appears to be no concensus among the “experts.” It sounds more like to me, "Publish or Perish" mantra!
They talk about the Emergency dose: the Effective Dose: and the Equivalent Dose. But what is the Killing Dose?? Or the Sickening Dose?
Now, using the principles given above, work the following problems:
1. 50 Sv = ? In Roentgens
2. 50 mSv = ? In R
3. 50 microSv = ? In R
4. 200 R = ? Sv
5. 300 Rem = ? Sv
6. 5000 R = ? Sv
7. 0.1 mSv/hr = ? R/hr
8. 0.1 Sv = ? Rem
And Here are the answers:
1. 5,000 R
2. 5 R
3. 0.005 R or, 5,000 micro R
4. 2 Sv
5. 3 Sv
6. 50 Sv
7. 10 mR/hr or, 0.01 R/hr
8. 10 Rem
And now, the Chart:
These Are In Our Future:
... To Be Continued ...
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Defrag your machine.
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