Absorbed DoseIn common language, this term is just what it sounds like: the radiation that gets into you. But as dosimetric jargon, it carries important nuances, because not all types of radiation have the same biological effects and not all types of living tissue are equally vulnerable. The absorbed dose is defined technically as the amount of energy, measured in joules, imparted by any ionizing radiation per unit mass of any material, measured in kilograms. One joule per kilogram (J/kg) of absorbed dose is called one GRAY (Gy). An old unit called the "rad" (for radiation absorbed dose) is still sometimes encountered in industry and government documents, especially in the United States. One gray equals 100 rads. The absorbed dose is a raw physical quantity and does not indicate much about the risk of biological effects in specific organs or tissues. The high doses used to kill cancerous cells and tumors, in the range of 40 Gy and up, are lethal to all human living matter, so physicians simply use the gray when ordering radiotherapy doses. (So-called fractionated doses – large totals delivered in small daily amounts – are used to limit side effects, but any cancer patient knows the debilitating nature of radiotherapy, the word therapy here being a special kind of euphemism for a process akin to turning off a lightbulb with a sledgehammer.) The spectrum of health effects from whole-body exposure as doses rise is also usually expressed in grays (see ACUTE RADIATION SYNDROME). When more finely tuned information is needed about the effects of different kinds of radiation on different kinds of tissues and about the long-term risk of damage, a unit called the SIEVERT is used.
SievertThis is one of the more subtle members of the motley collection of radiation measurement units used by scientists, physicians, and engineers. It was named in 1979 after Rolf Sievert (1896 - 1966), a Swedish physicist who performed seminal studies of the biological effects of radiation, especially for medical diagnosis and therapy. He pioneered the standardization of dosage levels in radiation treatments, a badly needed step during an era that began with primitive notions such as the "skin erythema dose" and the "tolerance dose." Sweden's first radiation protection law arrived in 1941 thanks to his insistence. The sievert (abbreviated Sv) was introduced specifically to help protect people and is arguably the most crucial unit for laymen to understand. Though it is expressed in the same physical terms as the GRAY– joules of absorbed radiation per kilogram of matter – it is expressly designed for living matter in order to reflect the fact that there are different kinds of radiation and different kinds of biological tissue. The sievert is used in two important measurements. The EQUIVALENT DOSE, widely encountered in literature about the health effects of radiation, is the average dose absorbed by an organ or tissue, which is expressed in grays, multiplied by a quality factor that weights the influence of the type of radiation absorbed. For example, ALPHA PARTICLES are assigned the highest weighting factor, 20, because they are the most damaging to living organisms. Photons, which comprise GAMMA RAYS, are valued the lowest, at 1, as are BETA PARTICLES. NEUTRONS are rated 5, 10, or 20, depending on how energetic they are. Thus, the equivalent dose for gamma and beta radiation, in sieverts, is the same as the absorbed dose in grays. The equivalent dose of alpha particles, however, is twenty times the absorbed dose in grays. And neutrons can be five, ten, or twenty times higher. A second measurement, called the EFFECTIVE DOSE, takes into consideration not only the type of radiation absorbed, but also the different levels of damage done by the radiation to different kinds of tissue. Weighting factors derived from laboratory findings, models, and epidemiologic evidence are assigned to various tissues and organs. When the equivalent dose to a certain tissue or organ is multiplied by one of these factors, the result is the effective dose, also expressed in sieverts. This is the best measure for how dangerous – or effective in killing malignant cells, if the target is a cancerous tumor – any particular exposure to the body might be. Many parts of the body have been rated, ranging from the skin, at 0.01; to the thyroid, at 0.05; to the lungs, at 0.12; to the gonads, at 0.2. The higher the rating, the more sensitive the tissue. These values are derived from a reference population consisting of both sexes and widely varying ages. From time to time they are revised as new data becomes available. For whole-body exposure to a certain type of radiation, the effective dose equals the equivalent dose. The sievert has largely superseded an older unit called the rem (for "Roentgen equivalent man"). The rem also made use of weighting factors and was based on a unit of radiation exposure called the roentgen, named in 1928 after German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen (1845 - 1923), who discovered X-RAYS. (One sievert equals 100 rem.) Unfortunately, these important technicalities are seldom evident in mainstream press coverage of disasters that involve radiation exposure. It's just too complicated for most newspapers and television shows. Even in the professional literature, the units may be explained differently and are not always used stringently. "Radiation units can be confusing," laments the U.S. National Research Council in one of its major reports. They may be further complicated by the appendage of time, volume, and per caput [per head or per capita] factors, making them confusing for specialists and nonspecialists alike. There is often no clue in official announcements, let alone in subsequent news stories, of how doses were calculated. In order to protect themselves, consumers of the news need to educate themselves, or else fall prey to the vagaries – intentional or not – of public information. A single full-body CT scan results in an effective dose of 12 mSv. A typical mammogram, at 0.13 Sv, delivers about a hundred times less. A chest X-ray, at 0.08 Sv, still less. Excess cancers – that is, cases above the number normally expected in a population – have been found among Japanese atomic bomb survivors at dose levels of about 100 to 4,000 mSv. As always, fetuses are especially vulnerable to radiation, with excess cancers found at in utero doses as low as 10 mSv. About one person out of one hundred will develop cancer from a single dose of 0.1 Sv above BACKGROUND RADIATION.
In preattack, high–risk areas, you will expect the heat and blast effects. People should be placed in the best protective places, such as below ground space if at all possible. In basement areas, have your family go to the corners of the basement near the exterior walls; not near the interior walls. This action will give the best protection against blast effects as well as radiation from the initial explosion and the lingering radiation, which is Fallout! You must stay from doorways and windows that open to the outside of the building! Keep your families apprised of this. Instruct your family, as we did here in the Great Northwest Forest: Lie face down on the floor immediately, with arms in a protective position over and on the head. Or, they can sit near, but not touching the walls in rows back to back. If you are caught above ground, go to the centralized area of your shelter; staying away from outside windows and interior windows, since the blast wave will shatter them possibly, assuming you are 20 to 30 miles from a megatonnage nuclear blast. In this central area, lie face down on the floor with the head covered by arms and hands, forming a protective position of the head. Have your family prepared with knowing to close blinds to reduce flash incinerations and burns. Locate and extinguish any fires. Get a positive ventilation control air system, as we have shown in the past. If weapons are detonated nearby, turn off all gas and electricity, to minimize or possibly prevent fires! If city water lines are compromised, turn off your water line at the outside main; open a valve, catch any water that may come out, to break the vaccum so you can open other lines to get the potable water out of the line for use. Otherwise, if the city service lines are broken, the water in your dwelling; especially if you have an upstairs, will drain out to the breakages! "Remember, gentlemen," Dr. "B" reinforced, "You cannot take in others! If you or your family talked, you will be overcome by force, people wanting you to take care of them, feed them, and you do not want to break the rule: Ten square feet of space per person!" Clean air is going to be a problem; therefore,
- No smoking in the shelter; or nearby.
- Clean shelter daily, several times a day if necessary, keeping the air clean.
- Establish a shelter schedule for shelter activities.
- Control the distribution of food and water.
- Monitor Radiological Conditions with radiological instrument; and monitor ventilation on a 24–hour basis. Have also carbon monoxide badges placed strategically on walls in the shelter area.
- Use available furniture to make the shelter area more desirable.
- Have and enforce health, sanitation, and safety rules!
- Use plastic bags lining a large sturdy plastic bucket for waste; place bleach or lysol in bucket. When a family member uses the 'Toilet' have them cover the wastes with a paper towel, and place a little bleach or lysol over it. When full, having assigned duties, remove the plastic bag with ties and place in a larger bucket or small garbage can. Remove when radiation has dropped down to tolerable levels outside, such as 30,000 CPM; or to 0 – 50 R/hr. Best if 0 – 0.5 R/hr., after accounting for Background Radiation. There are places in the world, such as Kerala India, Guarapari, Brazil, and Northern Iran, where one receives 0.1 Sv to 0.25 Sv within a year which is 10 to 25 Rem in a year's time, and live without any adverse effects! Use the ALARA policy: As Low As Reasonably Achievable! There is no hard fast rule: Safe...No Safe Limits! Go out only for a two to three minutes to place waste sack and other trash outside to be buried later!
- Enforce sanitation, health, and safety rules!
- Keep shelterees busy by cleaning the food preparation, sanitation area, and recreational activities, and keep monitoring, during all this, ventilation and temperature. Assign duties and rotate on a periodic basis!
"The carriers of the electron–transport chain are arranged in order of increasingly positive redox potential. Each carrier is reduced (gains electrons) by the gain of electrons from the preceding carrier in the chain and is subsequently oxidized by the loss of electrons to the carrier following it. Thus, electrons are passed from one carrier to the next, losing energy as they move 'downhill' along the chain. The final acceptor of this electron 'bucket brigade' is O2, which accepts the energy–depleted electrons and is reduced to water.""The stepwise reduction slows the direct combination of oxygen with organic compounds (spontaneous combustion) and allows the cell to oxidize fuels through the action of dehydrogenases, which eventually couple the reducing power of oxygen to ATP generation in the electron transport chain"— Basic Medical Biochemistry: A Clinical Approach, Marks & Marks, Smith. The paradox is this: Because of the structure of oxygen, reactive oxygen species are generated which are capable of, and do cause, cell injury as we age. However, because of the tremendous PUFAs, normal cellular defenses are continually overwhelmed and dysfunction comes on sooner; then, disease; then, death. We have been set–up for The Killing Mechanism, See Part I and Part II on our website, by overabundance of drugs, PUFAs, endocrine disrupters, pollution of waters, food, and the air we breathe. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a built–in mechanism that is spewed off from this pecularity of oxygen. We will investigate this closer soon. But for now, let us continue in the presentation of oxygen and its necessity for life; how it can cause cellular dysfunction, and why we do not burst into spontaneous combustion just breathing the atmospheric oxygen around us. Cellular injury, ROS, and phagocytosis (defense against foreign objects, mainly microbes) use oxygen in these events, such as ischemia (a condition generated by a loss of supply of oxygen which then also decreases ATP production), and in other conditions in the body that cause more ROS generation from oxygen. Oxygen has, as given above, 2 unpaired electrons in different orbits that spin parallel to one another. This is an antibonding effect for those electrons. This configuration is most stable (ground state) for oxygen. It is this form that exists around us in nature—the air we breathe. Here, oxygen is a potent oxidizing agent. It is known as a strong oxidant. It will receive electrons from other molecules. But, the biomolecules (substrates—that which is acted upon), lipids, fats, DNA, carbohydrates, and any organic (contains carbon) molecules have 2 paired electrons with antiparallel spins. For oxygen to accept a pair of electrons from organic molecules, either one of the oxygen molecules; or, one of the incoming electrons from the substrate (organic molecules) must spin invert. In other words, oxygen and the biomolecules (or substrate) must be parallel to one another in their spins or antiparallel. They become one. They have similar spins in the parallel or antiparallel state. But, there is a Spin Restriction such that "there is a large thermodynamic barrier to spin inversion, and it would have to occur through a multistep process with a high activation energy. The kinetic barrier resulting from this spin restriction slows down direct oxidation of carbon to hydrogen bonds in organic molecules and deters the spontaneous combustion of fuels." — Ibid This spin restriction forces oxygen to accept electrons in a step–wise fashion, one electron at a time. And, this helps explain why oxygen reacts sluggishly with organic molecules or non–radicals. On the other hand, oxygen reacts quite expediently with other radicals by transferring single electrons. Consider this: You have a book that is in pristine condition; that is, the pages are not yellow. Fifteen to thirty years from now you look again at that book and the pages are yellowing and some are dark yellow brown. Years later, many of those pages have disintegrated. What is happening is that the book pages are oxidizing, they are burning very slowly. The oxygen in the air is reacting slowly with the paper and the yellow and brown pages are in a slow burn. But, if you strike a match to the pages, this is bringing a high enough temperature increase whereby it bursts into flames. You added energy in the form of higher temperature. If a human body, or a plant, or any organic molecules have high temperatures brought near them, homolytic bond fission occurs and oxygen reacts with gusto and leaps onto the radicals formed from the high temperatures, and combustion is started — Gilbert, 1981; Halliwell and Gutteridge, 2006. Most molecules in living things are non radicals, but, apply enough energy and things change; thermodynamic barriers to spin inversions are overcome and spontaneous combustion occurs. As we move more into the Arm of Orion in the Milky Way Galaxy, enormous energies in the form of huge electric currents and powerful electromagnetic fields are present that can serve as the energy source if we broach them to cause:
. . . the resulting damage caused by reactive chemical compounds produced during the normal metabolic process in the brain. Oxidative stress is known to be associated with a number of different diseases and conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and many other conditions.One thing they recommend from the new research conducted at the University of Kansas Medical Center, is what Dr. "B" has been recommending for years now, "Glutathione". He recommends Glutathione by Healthy Origins, 500 mg per capsule; twice to four times daily in divided doses.
"Understand This Carefully, Men," Dr. "B" Told Us. "It Just May Be The Thing, Coupled With What You Have Learned & What I have Been Teaching You To Get Through All This!"
||Produced by the electron transport chain and at other sites. Generates other reactive oxygen species but cannot diffuse far from the site of origin.|
||Not a free radical, but can generate free radicals by reaction with a transition metal (e.g., iron: Fe2+). Can diffuse into and through cell membranes.|
||The most reactive species in attacking biological molecules. Produced by water in the presence of iron (Fe2+).|
||An organic free radical produced from RH (Polyunsaturated Lipid) by OH. attack. RH can be the carbon of a double bond in a fatty acid (resulting in -C.=C-) or RSH (organic thiol) (resulting in R-S.)|
| Organic Peroxide Radical
||An organic peroxide radical, such as occurs during lipid degradation.|
| Hypochlorous Acid
||Produced in bacteria during the respiratory burst to destroy invading organisms.|
| Singlet Oxygen
||Oxygen with antiparallel spins. Produced at high oxygen tensions from the absorption of energy. Decays with the release of light.|
Keep in mind, the cruciferous vegetables do interfere with thyroid hormone; therefore, have stored T3, the most active form of TH (thyroid hormone). When consuming these, take a pinch—1/4 of 20 or 25 micrograms, of the active form on an empty (3 to 4 hours without food, vitamins & minerals, iron, or milk...empty) stomach before bed.However, there is "leakage" of ROS from cellular compartments, where these ROS products are maintained and broken down. This leakage is increased with consumption of PUFAs, (vegetable oils, fish oil, krill oil, flax and borage oils, etc., but not real Saturated Fat, such as coconut oil and real butter), and, if these deadly components (highly reactive oxygen substances) are not scavenged, they can do damage to surrounding cells and membranes. If the cellular compartments become damaged, say from leakage, then a pulse of ROS has free reign to do damage to organelles' membranes, such as mitochondria (cell's powerhouse where ATP is generated); or, to DNA membrane, wreaking havoc on the genome. They are no longer under the "watchful eye" of catalase and other enzymes that scavenge these free radicals. But the damage is quickly contained by other chemicals, vitamins, and the mineral selenium complexed to proteins, which is necessary for the completion of glutathione peroxidase. These peroxidases are selenoproteins found essentially in all tissues. With the immense stress now here and more coming very soon now, and the chaos coming to America that one has never seen before, the excessive stress will accelerate ROS damage faster. Just look at the various Presidents of the U.S. when they enter office; then, a few years later; when they leave. Old is the word! And, if you notice carefully when they speak after leaving office, or in a second term, they appear to have cognitive deficits in formulating their words or thoughts near the end of that second term. They do stumble through it, but the vim and vigor is gone. Their aggressive speech is gone...and their bodies are gone...soon for good. Peroxisomes are peroxide bodies, known as cytoplasmic organelles. They are involved in oxidative reactions that use molecular oxygen. These peroxide bodies are "a small organelle (a type of microbody) that is bounded by a single membrane and found in plant and animal cells. It contains enzymes that are involved in oxidation processes, some of which generate the highly toxic compound hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Hence, peroxisomes are equipped with catalase, an enzyme that breaks down H2O2 into water and oxygen. Peroxisomes are the main site of fatty–acid oxidation in plant cells and also play a significant role in this regard in animal cells. "They are responsible for neutralizing toxins absorbed from the blood, especially in the cells of the liver parenchyma and proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney" — Oxford Dictionary of Biology: New Edition. From this, one can see 'What Fresh Hell' is caused to the liver and kidneys of the organism daily. Other cells of an organism are under attack as are these just enumerated. There are peroxisome proliferators such as various xenobiotics (drugs, medications, plasticizers, etc.). Peroxisome proliferation is associated with DNA damage in the cell. "Reactive oxygen species generated from cellular organelles (in particular the endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes and mitochondria) constitute a major source of oxygen radicals produced in cells. Peroxisomes are major sites of oxygen utilization where molecular oxygen is used to remove hydrogen from organic substrates. An end product of this reaction is hydrogen peroxide. Typically, catalase, which is present in the peroxisomes, reduces the hydrogen peroxide to water. Certain xenobiotics (peroxisome proliferators) are able to induce an increase in the number and size of peroxisomes in the cell. "When this occurs, enzymes responsible for beta–oxidation of fatty acids in peroxisomes are increased 20– to 30–fold while catalase activity is increased only two–fold. Thus, more hydrogen peroxide is produced than can be scavenged by the catalase. It has been suggested that hydrogen peroxide can in turn "leak" from these peroxisomes. This additional hydrogen causes an oxidative stress in the cell. The excess production of hydrogen peroxide in the cells has been demonstrated with a number of peroxisome proliferating compounds..." — Free Radical Toxicology, p. 379. In normal cellular metabolism, such as that found in cytochrome P–450 enzymes, reactive oxygen species may be generated from foreign substances. ROS is everywhere in the body and "leaks" from its protective compartments, causing damage. Obsolescence is built into the body. Drugs, medications, just staying alive, exercise, and practically anything that uses oxygen, generates ROS that eventually gets us. There are some things we can do to lessen its effects and excessive generation, such as reducing PUFAs, keeping lipid peroxidation down as much as possible, ingesting a sensible diet with reduced calories, using coconut and some palm kernel oil, real beef fat, butter, lard, and tallow, among other things, but in the end those who survive will be those with superior biochemistries. We do not know who they are. Hence, it behooves one to follow the ideas given in this document and hope we improve our biochemistry, such that it will be ready for the tremendous onslaught it has been set up for from the total collapse of our economic system, the unbelievable confusion and chaos that is being generated. Then, we have, possibly, terrific forces coming from the stars, including that from man; especially nuclear war.
It tilts the "see–saw," ROS to Removal Capacity, in the down–direction toward the position where ROS sits. The up–direction of the see–saw is where cellular compartments are riding, including cellular enzymes, vitamins E and C, and other cell defenses, such as catalase. When ROS is produced faster than they are removed, the ratio of ROS to its Removal is high and Oxidative Stress is occurring.
"The free radicals are capable of reacting indiscriminately with any molecules with which they come in contact, extracting electrons, and generating new free radicals in cytotoxic oxidative chain reactions. The hydroxyl radical is probably the most potent of the ROS (what your WebMasters call the 'Chess Knight' of free radicals), and the probable initiator of the chain reactions which form lipid peroxides (ROOH) and organic radicals. Hydrogen peroxide, although not actually a radical, is an oxidizing agent and, in the presence of Fe2+ (Iron (II)) or another transition metal, generates the hydroxyl radical by the Fenton reaction. "Because hydrogen peroxide is lipid soluble, it can create damage at localized Fe2+–containing membranes far from its site of formation." Now, think about all the people who are ingesting food–grade hydrogen peroxide. Natural food stores, nutritionists, dentists, physicians, and others tell them how great it is to kill various microbes—it is. But, consider this: They counter the fact that hydrogen peroxide is removed by catalase. It is also removed by glutathione peroxidase, which is never mentioned. The point is this. It "cured" this or that, yet, the question that begs answer is oxidative stress. No one ever mentions this, nor do they mention that it may have, indeed, stopped or put in remission someone's symptoms and pain and suffering; only later to cause all the dysfunctions and disease conditions, such as cancer and others, to surface later because of the enhanced ROS the ingesters of hydrogen peroxide have to deal with. Oxidative Stress gets them in the end...maybe sooner. And they never consider leakage! And everyone leaks, especially as we get older. Basic Medical Biochemistry continues: "The superoxide anion, which can be formed from free O2 by donation of an electron to another free radical, is highly reactive but has limited lipid solubility and cannot diffuse far. However, O2– can also generate the more reactive hydroxyl and hydroperoxy radicals by reaction with hydrogen peroxide in the Haber–Weiss reaction" — Basic Medical Biochemistry: A Clinical Approach, page 330.A major reason the ultraviolet radiation from the Sun is so damaging to skin is probably due to the formation of the hydroxyl radical. To help the internal mechanism (catalase) protect against this potent toxic chemical, one should consider ingesting carnosine. It will scavange the free hydroxyl radical (HO.). Ionizing radiation produces in the organism oxygen free radicals, reactive oxygen species, and this is out of balance with ROS in the affirmative to the cellular defenses, which are not able to quell ROS fast enough. Hence, we have oxidative stress occurring from radiation. On this matter of "leakage" again, intermediates of free radicals from enzymatic reactions from the enzyme active sites "leak" from their active sites and react with molecular oxygen or other compounds in the organism, forming reactive oxygen species. Additionally, ROS is formed in the cell continuously through regular metabolic pathways. The electron transport chain components may "leak" to oxygen some electrons, one at a time, forming O2–. "HOCL, or hypochlorous acid, is the major reactive component of household bleach. In the human, it is formed by neutrophils and other granulomatous cells from H2O2 during the destruction of foreign organisms in a response called the respiratory burst." The respiratory burst, also known as a metabolic burst, is the process in which oxygen consumption may increase markedly (i.e., in a pulse of several minutes' duration) starting in seconds of stimulation; much of the oxygen may be used to form superoxide radicals, as in phagocytosis (process of engulfing microbes and destroying them) — Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Second Edition. The granulomatous cells are the eosinophils, neutrophils, and macrophages. These leucocytes of the white blood cell line are the second line of defense the non–specific resistance to any pathogen, not involving specific responses of the immune system, such as B cells and T cells. They are ever present to fight microbial or foreign body invasion of the organism — Microbiology: An Introduction, Sixth Edition. When phygocytosis occurs, the ingested bacterial cell is digested. But first, there is a rapid increase, as given above, in oxygen consumption (Respiratory Burst). This is used to oxidize NADPH, which is designed to form superoxide anions. The ingested pocket that has formed into a circular object containing the bacteria is known as a vacuole. The superoxide anions are shed into the vacuole and converted to hydrogen peroxide, assisting in destroying the imprisoned bacterial cell. Here's the difficulty: Excess neutrophils that are present at this time find irritated joints, joints that have nothing to do with the bacteria, are attracted there, and could release superoxide, generating more damage in the arthritic joint. Obsolescence is built into the organism. The superoxide is present in only tiny amounts, but it can generate a chain reaction that causes mega amounts of damage. This destruction, generated by superoxide anions, creates a chain of reactions that is self–perpetuating.
O2 + e– → O2 .–"The unpaired electron acquires a partner by attacking a covalent bond of another molecule"— Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Elliott & Elliott, Third Edition. The metabolic and physiologic pathway of oxygen as it is being reduced step–wise so that it does not cause spontaneous combustion of the human organism, oxygen on its way to form water, first gains one electron, forming the superoxide anion, as given immediately above, then. The superoxide anion must be scavenged quickly and this is done by superoxide dismutase, generating H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) and water as follows:
O2 .– → H2O2 + H2OHydrogen peroxide is a potent oxidizing agent and is used to destroy microbials in the organism, and as a household disinfectant. The reaction proceeds as follows: The H2O2 + catalase (or glutathione peroxidase in the brain) → H2O + O2 The H2O2 generates the hydroxyl radical (HO.) in the presence of an iron (II) containing membrane or another transition metal by the Fenton reaction. Because H2O2 is lipid soluble, it can damage membranes far from its site of generation when Fe2+ (iron (II)) or other transition metals are present in distal membranes.
"In the 1970s government statisticians calculated that if all electricity were cut off, 30 % of the population would be dead within a month. Within a year, 80 % would be dead. And that was back in the 1970s ... now it's worse!"– The McAlvaney Intelligence Advisor, August 1999.
Public Shelters, if there is one, will be Total Hell, as the masses now feel 'Entitled' to everything and to do as they please! It Will Be Total Hell and the Shelter Director and his officers will experience this when the order is given to 'Turn in all Weapons'! The shelterees will not give them up and there will be a second crisis—One In The Shelter!You must be totally self-sufficient for two weeks–three is better; or, until your meter(s) says it is safe to come out and the fallout cloud has completely passed, or decay of the fallout has occurred. You must have a minimum of one quart of potable water per individual per day—one gallon per day is better. Do not allow waste. Store enough food, including canned goods, such as canned breast of chicken, fruits, vegetables, etc., all water packed without salt in case you need to have water and can drink the water from the canned fruit and vegetables. Have some canned fuel supplies. Appoint only trained adults to do kitchen duty such that cross-contamination is not a problem. Allow no one else in the kitchen and have only two to three small meals a day. Store whole grain cereals, breads, butter (especially canned butter) or coconut oil to serve as your butter and cooking oil. Do not use vegetable oils. Plan ahead! Natural peanut butters and jams and jellies made with real sugar. And, have on hand real maple syrup. Store water in containers as the Crisis Worsens. Additionally, turn off water at the main; then, closing off values at the lower level of the house and opening one valve at the higher level, water can be drawn off from the inline piping as needed by opening, as needed, a valve at the lower level and filling a container. Water from the water heater can also be drawn this way too at the water heater's drain valve. If the electricity is out, use food from the refrigerator first; then, as the food thaws in the freezer, start on that. If you have infants, store for their needs, such as diapers, formula, etc. If you are a diabetic; or, have heart disease; or on a pump mechanism, have medicines, and so–forth stored in your home shelter. And, store extra batteries in double layered heavy foil for radios, pump mechanisms, such as an insulin pump, etc., and batteries for other uses, such as flashlights.
with a plus 2 charge.
Ordinary Orbital Electron
|Prefix||Equal to||How Much Is That?||Abbreviation||Example|
|atto-||1 X 10-18||.000000000000000001||A||aCi|
|femto-||1 X 10-15||.000000000000001||F||fCi|
|pico-||1 X 10-12||.000000000001||p||pCi|
|nano-||1 X 10-9||.000000001||n||nCi|
|micro-||1 X 10-6||.000001||µ||µCi|
|milli-||1 X 10-3||.001||m||mCi|
|centi-||1 X 10-2||.01||c||cSv|
|Prefix||Equal to||How Much Is That?||Abbreviation||Example|
|kilo-||1 X 103||1000||k||kCi|
|mega-||1 X 106||1,000,000||M||MCi|
|giga-||1 X 109||100,000,000||G||GBq|
|tera-||1 X 1012||100,000,000,000||T||TBq|
|peta-||1 X 1015||100,000,000,000,000||P||PBq|
|exa-||1 X 1018||100,000,000,000,000,000||E||EBq|