Dr. "B" Began...

Discussing

 

'Working With Radiation & Ionization!'


 

"By Working With Our Meters, Radioactive Sources, Doing 'Fox Hunts,' We Will Master

The Difficult & Solder Into Our Muscle Memory Throughout Our Bodies What Is Safe & What Is Dangerous . . . Not Making Mistakes; or, Reducing Them Down In Changing Sieverts To REMS Or Interconversion of Other Units With Our Meters When Under Stress"



>

 

"Gentlemen! Dr. "B" said, his voice deep, grave, and forthright, as we neared our fourth week of intense training, "time, as we know it is very short now. Obviously, you think so too and so do your superiors. This is why you are here!

"We must understand and do more of the mathematics involved; and, we will learn more on Absorbed Dose, Equivalent Dose, and Effective Dose. The main problem is that under daunting stress, we will make life-threatening mistakes, if we do not do the mathematics now under the light stress of the rarefied air; cold, and being plagued by the wild wolves!

"Without all this practice, mistakes will be unavoidable, hence the reason for more Decay Problems, Conversion Problems, and meter use.

"I am now giving you from A Field Guide To Radiation, by Wayne Biddle, a small summary on Absorbed Dose & Sievert and Monsieur Kong has purchased the book and will give them out to each one of you when we depart.

 

For The Cognoscenti:

A Field Guide To Radiation

Get This Informative Book!


Absorbed Dose

In common language, this term is just what it sounds like: the radiation that gets into you. But as dosimetric jargon, it carries important nuances, because not all types of radiation have the same biological effects and not all types of living tissue are equally vulnerable.

The absorbed dose is defined technically as the amount of energy, measured in joules, imparted by any ionizing radiation per unit mass of any material, measured in kilograms. One joule per kilogram (J/kg) of absorbed dose is called one GRAY (Gy). An old unit called the "rad" (for radiation absorbed dose) is still sometimes encountered in industry and government documents, especially in the United States. One gray equals 100 rads.

The absorbed dose is a raw physical quantity and does not indicate much about the risk of biological effects in specific organs or tissues. The high doses used to kill cancerous cells and tumors, in the range of 40 Gy and up, are lethal to all human living matter, so physicians simply use the gray when ordering radiotherapy doses. (So-called fractionated doses – large totals delivered in small daily amounts – are used to limit side effects, but any cancer patient knows the debilitating nature of radiotherapy, the word therapy here being a special kind of euphemism for a process akin to turning off a lightbulb with a sledgehammer.) The spectrum of health effects from whole-body exposure as doses rise is also usually expressed in grays (see ACUTE RADIATION SYNDROME).

When more finely tuned information is needed about the effects of different kinds of radiation on different kinds of tissues and about the long-term risk of damage, a unit called the SIEVERT is used.

    And now, this too from Wayne Biddle, on the Sievert. He gives an excellent short discussion...and I see Monsieur Kong is now passing out the books he purchased and brought along to give you, after I related Mr. Biddle's book is extremely concise and to the point. I recommend this book to all our subscribers!

 

Sievert

This is one of the more subtle members of the motley collection of radiation measurement units used by scientists, physicians, and engineers. It was named in 1979 after Rolf Sievert (1896 - 1966), a Swedish physicist who performed seminal studies of the biological effects of radiation, especially for medical diagnosis and therapy. He pioneered the standardization of dosage levels in radiation treatments, a badly needed step during an era that began with primitive notions such as the "skin erythema dose" and the "tolerance dose." Sweden's first radiation protection law arrived in 1941 thanks to his insistence.

The sievert (abbreviated Sv) was introduced specifically to help protect people and is arguably the most crucial unit for laymen to understand. Though it is expressed in the same physical terms as the GRAY– joules of absorbed radiation per kilogram of matter – it is expressly designed for living matter in order to reflect the fact that there are different kinds of radiation and different kinds of biological tissue.

The sievert is used in two important measurements. The EQUIVALENT DOSE, widely encountered in literature about the health effects of radiation, is the average dose absorbed by an organ or tissue, which is expressed in grays, multiplied by a quality factor that weights the influence of the type of radiation absorbed. For example, ALPHA PARTICLES are assigned the highest weighting factor, 20, because they are the most damaging to living organisms. Photons, which comprise GAMMA RAYS, are valued the lowest, at 1, as are BETA PARTICLES. NEUTRONS are rated 5, 10, or 20, depending on how energetic they are. Thus, the equivalent dose for gamma and beta radiation, in sieverts, is the same as the absorbed dose in grays. The equivalent dose of alpha particles, however, is twenty times the absorbed dose in grays. And neutrons can be five, ten, or twenty times higher.

A second measurement, called the EFFECTIVE DOSE, takes into consideration not only the type of radiation absorbed, but also the different levels of damage done by the radiation to different kinds of tissue. Weighting factors derived from laboratory findings, models, and epidemiologic evidence are assigned to various tissues and organs. When the equivalent dose to a certain tissue or organ is multiplied by one of these factors, the result is the effective dose, also expressed in sieverts. This is the best measure for how dangerous – or effective in killing malignant cells, if the target is a cancerous tumor – any particular exposure to the body might be. Many parts of the body have been rated, ranging from the skin, at 0.01; to the thyroid, at 0.05; to the lungs, at 0.12; to the gonads, at 0.2. The higher the rating, the more sensitive the tissue. These values are derived from a reference population consisting of both sexes and widely varying ages. From time to time they are revised as new data becomes available. For whole-body exposure to a certain type of radiation, the effective dose equals the equivalent dose.

The sievert has largely superseded an older unit called the rem (for "Roentgen equivalent man"). The rem also made use of weighting factors and was based on a unit of radiation exposure called the roentgen, named in 1928 after German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen (1845 - 1923), who discovered X-RAYS. (One sievert equals 100 rem.)

Unfortunately, these important technicalities are seldom evident in mainstream press coverage of disasters that involve radiation exposure. It's just too complicated for most newspapers and television shows. Even in the professional literature, the units may be explained differently and are not always used stringently. "Radiation units can be confusing," laments the U.S. National Research Council in one of its major reports. They may be further complicated by the appendage of time, volume, and per caput [per head or per capita] factors, making them confusing for specialists and nonspecialists alike. There is often no clue in official announcements, let alone in subsequent news stories, of how doses were calculated. In order to protect themselves, consumers of the news need to educate themselves, or else fall prey to the vagaries – intentional or not – of public information.

A single full-body CT scan results in an effective dose of 12 mSv. A typical mammogram, at 0.13 Sv, delivers about a hundred times less. A chest X-ray, at 0.08 Sv, still less. Excess cancers – that is, cases above the number normally expected in a population – have been found among Japanese atomic bomb survivors at dose levels of about 100 to 4,000 mSv. As always, fetuses are especially vulnerable to radiation, with excess cancers found at in utero doses as low as 10 mSv.

About one person out of one hundred will develop cancer from a single dose of 0.1 Sv above BACKGROUND RADIATION.

 

The Helium Atom:

Helium Atom
 


 

<Rolf Sievert In His Lab, 1929

 

Rolf Sievert In His Laboratory, 1929

 


 

What Type of Shelter Will You End Up With?

 
 

"By having thought this out in advance, and with the practice we are doing in these great forests, you will be prepared. We will go through the following: Shelter in your home; in your below the ground basement, if you have one; what walls are best to be next to, but not leaning against. This, and more, we now discuss in detail, gentlemen.


 

It's Going To Be A Forlorn Time!

 
 

Dr. "B" Then Spoke On:

Your Shelter!

 


 

Dr. "B" then gave the following from The Defense Civil Preparedness Agency, from Washington, D. C., pointing out the following to the group:
In preattack, high–risk areas, you will expect the heat and blast effects. People should be placed in the best protective places, such as below ground space if at all possible.

In basement areas, have your family go to the corners of the basement near the exterior walls; not near the interior walls. This action will give the best protection against blast effects as well as radiation from the initial explosion and the lingering radiation, which is Fallout!

You must stay from doorways and windows that open to the outside of the building! Keep your families apprised of this.

Instruct your family, as we did here in the Great Northwest Forest: Lie face down on the floor immediately, with arms in a protective position over and on the head. Or, they can sit near, but not touching the walls in rows back to back.

If you are caught above ground, go to the centralized area of your shelter; staying away from outside windows and interior windows, since the blast wave will shatter them possibly, assuming you are 20 to 30 miles from a megatonnage nuclear blast. In this central area, lie face down on the floor with the head covered by arms and hands, forming a protective position of the head.

Have your family prepared with knowing to close blinds to reduce flash incinerations and burns. Locate and extinguish any fires. Get a positive ventilation control air system, as we have shown in the past.

If weapons are detonated nearby, turn off all gas and electricity, to minimize or possibly prevent fires! If city water lines are compromised, turn off your water line at the outside main; open a valve, catch any water that may come out, to break the vaccum so you can open other lines to get the potable water out of the line for use. Otherwise, if the city service lines are broken, the water in your dwelling; especially if you have an upstairs, will drain out to the breakages!

"Remember, gentlemen," Dr. "B" reinforced, "You cannot take in others! If you or your family talked, you will be overcome by force, people wanting you to take care of them, feed them, and you do not want to break the rule: Ten square feet of space per person!"

Clean air is going to be a problem; therefore,

  • No smoking in the shelter; or nearby.

  • Clean shelter daily, several times a day if necessary, keeping the air clean.

  • Establish a shelter schedule for shelter activities.

  • Control the distribution of food and water.

  • Monitor Radiological Conditions with radiological instrument; and monitor ventilation on a 24–hour basis. Have also carbon monoxide badges placed strategically on walls in the shelter area.

  • Use available furniture to make the shelter area more desirable.

  • Have and enforce health, sanitation, and safety rules!

  • Use plastic bags lining a large sturdy plastic bucket for waste; place bleach or lysol in bucket. When a family member uses the 'Toilet' have them cover the wastes with a paper towel, and place a little bleach or lysol over it. When full, having assigned duties, remove the plastic bag with ties and place in a larger bucket or small garbage can. Remove when radiation has dropped down to tolerable levels outside, such as 30,000 CPM; or to 0 – 50 R/hr. Best if 0 – 0.5 R/hr., after accounting for Background Radiation.

    There are places in the world, such as Kerala India, Guarapari, Brazil, and Northern Iran, where one receives 0.1 Sv to 0.25 Sv within a year which is 10 to 25 Rem in a year's time, and live without any adverse effects!

    Use the ALARA policy: As Low As Reasonably Achievable!
    There is no hard fast rule: Safe...No Safe Limits!

    Go out only for a two to three minutes to place waste sack and other trash outside to be buried later!

  • Enforce sanitation, health, and safety rules!

  • Keep shelterees busy by cleaning the food preparation, sanitation area, and recreational activities, and keep monitoring, during all this, ventilation and temperature. Assign duties and rotate on a periodic basis!

When the attack is over, assess blast damage; from glass breakage to structural damage. Any fires should be quickly extinguished! Throw smoldering materials outside. Repair any damage that affects the habitability of the shelter area, such as blocked exits, etc.

Keep Radiological Monitoring active comparing to the charts given to you earlier! Wear throughout all the activity, personal Dosimeters! Monitoring as you were taught!

When the attack is over, continue to monitor shelterees for personal contamination. Decontaminate as necessary and everyone in your personal shelter should be on Iodoral, vitamins & minerals, Chlorella & Algin—for internal contamination, and placed on Bentonite if anyone of your family went outside and/or got to the shelter late and swallowed Radioactive Particulate matter!

If anyone dies, regardless of the reason, you must remove the remains to another area; wrap in plastic polyethylene, after covering the body with lime! Then, when safe to venture outdoors, as indicated by a radiation count, bury the body! Apply the ALARA policy for radiation safety.

 
 

If Your Home Has A Basement Below The Ground, Stock It With Food, Water, Medicines, Etc., & Have A Radiological Instrument And Go To The Exterior Wall For Best Protection !

 

Fallout Protection: Basement Exterior Wall!
 

The Inspector EXP:

Inspector EXP: One of Dr. 'B's Meters



 


 

Our Biggest Problem From The Immense Stress Generated By 'Not Knowing What To Do' During A Nuclear Holocaust In America, Will Be Oxidative Stress! Generated By The Stress Response & Fallout!

 
 

Oxidative Stress — This occurs when ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) production exceeds the cells' removal capacity. "When ROS are produced faster than they can be removed by the cellular defenses, the cellular mechanisms" become stressed by reactive oxygen species:

The oxygen we consume from the air, molecular oxygen, is fed throughout the body, being used in several systems. The Respiratory Cellular System (consisting of three distinct stages: Glycolysis, the Krebs Cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain). Oxygen will accept electrons from NADH from all three stages. Many of you reading this have found that taking such a substance from your natural food store has increased your energy, and you may have noticed recovery from infections and illnesses quicker, and overall feeling better. The body also gets the NAD radical from niacin—the B vitamin that flushes one. Oxygen also accepts electrons from FAD(2H). The Electron Transport Chain is where part of your oxygen goes. The remainder is used by Oxidases and Oxygenases in the cells of the body. The former are enzymes (protein in nature) that reduce oxygen and cause it to gain electrons, and be converted to water or hydrogen peroxide. The latter, Oxygenases, are enzymes that incorporate molecular oxygen from the atmosphere directly into the molecules being oxidized.

Food "burning" in our bodies is a very dangerous process, if the electron transport system was not in place. Just remember these foods are organic molecules known as substrates—the thing that oxygen is used in by means of enzymes bringing the two together and causing oxidation, one step at time. This is important! Without such enzymes, an explosive nature exists. Without these enzymes, energy is released all at once.

These oxidases/oxygenases are not coupled to the production of ATP. Remember, ATP is the energy currency of the body. Without that, life as we know it does not exist. Regardless, these latter oxidations are necessary for the drug detoxifications, the catabolism (breakdown) of amino acids, and steroid hormone synthesis.

Now, we come to a very important point. Because of oxygen's electronic structure, physiological oxidation reactions (generation of energy and detoxifications), those reactions of a toxicological nature (detoxifications) occur via single electron transfers. The oxygen in the atmosphere, molecular oxygen, that which we breathe, if one takes a match; strikes it, and it bursts into flames; then, if one holds a material such as paper, organic molecules, it bursts suddenly into flames when the heat of combustion is reached.

Let's say this another way: When the oxygen of the air has enough energy applied to it, as in a match, in the presence of an organic molecule, spontaneous combustion occurs, as in gasoline (hydrocarbon—organic molecules) vapors that are not dispersed quickly enough, but that float in a cloud. Ask any war veteran if he has seen an explosion of vapors rising and expanding in all directions, creating a roiling ball of fire.

You should now begin to see what keeps the body from spontaneous combustion in a sea of oxygen around us as we use oxygen in our bodies. As given above, this is a simple process involved in the electron transport system utilizing enzymes. In the case of detoxifications, or anywhere else oxygen is used in the body, when it comes into contact with biomolecules' (organic molecules) enzymes, especially in the respiratory system, the enzymes reduce oxygen one step at a time, otherwise, you are going to see the most rapid spontaneous combustion ever.

You will probably see something analogous to a sodium flash in a chemistry laboratory experiment performed by the professor when he is using sodium to demonstrate why one should be cautious with such an item when in the presence of oxygen and moisture. Sodium metal spontaneously goes into combustion. It can be awesome when one witnesses a phosphorous explosion in combat. Almost a blinding flash of light as anything in the immediate vicinity is vaporized.

The reason for this is that dioxygen (molecular oxygen) has two electrons that are unpaired. It is a free radical actually, but not referred to as such. Its electrons spin parallel (two unpaired electrons with a parallel spin) and are antibonding because of this configuration. This antibonding parallel spin prevents organic molecules (molecules containing carbon) such as those forming humans and other forms of life, from igniting spontaneously in an atmosphere of oxygen.

What happens is that energy is transferred slowly from a carbon to hydrogen molecule (organic molecules), one electron step at a time from an organic molecule to oxygen by means of enzymes, these oxidations of foodstuffs or transferring of electrons within a human's electron transport chain, occur smoothly.The enzymes doing this use transition metals, such as iron, Fe (II), and copper, Cu (I) in cytochrome oxidase. Over eons of time, cytochrome oxidase learned how to do this by overcoming spin restrictions. This is a quantum mechanics thing. We will explain without all the math and do so in a simplified manner.

Oxygen, as you have been reading, is toxic and necessary to have life as we know it. This two–edged sword is a paradox. This paradox favors dioxygen (molecular oxygen) in a step wise reduction in single electron movements producing carbon dioxide, water, and energy, or rather the energy currency of the cell, ATP. By having the oxygen molecule, which can accept a total of 4 electrons to be reduced to 2 molecules of water, can be reduced one electron at a time, with two electrons moving down the electron transport gradient at a time.

Karp says it this way in the Fourth Edition of Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments:

"The carriers of the electron–transport chain are arranged in order of increasingly positive redox potential. Each carrier is reduced (gains electrons) by the gain of electrons from the preceding carrier in the chain and is subsequently oxidized by the loss of electrons to the carrier following it. Thus, electrons are passed from one carrier to the next, losing energy as they move 'downhill' along the chain. The final acceptor of this electron 'bucket brigade' is O2, which accepts the energy–depleted electrons and is reduced to water."

"The stepwise reduction slows the direct combination of oxygen with organic compounds (spontaneous combustion) and allows the cell to oxidize fuels through the action of dehydrogenases, which eventually couple the reducing power of oxygen to ATP generation in the electron transport chain"Basic Medical Biochemistry: A Clinical Approach, Marks & Marks, Smith.

The paradox is this: Because of the structure of oxygen, reactive oxygen species are generated which are capable of, and do cause, cell injury as we age. However, because of the tremendous PUFAs, normal cellular defenses are continually overwhelmed and dysfunction comes on sooner; then, disease; then, death. We have been set–up for The Killing Mechanism, See Part I and Part II on our website, by overabundance of drugs, PUFAs, endocrine disrupters, pollution of waters, food, and the air we breathe. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a built–in mechanism that is spewed off from this pecularity of oxygen. We will investigate this closer soon. But for now, let us continue in the presentation of oxygen and its necessity for life; how it can cause cellular dysfunction, and why we do not burst into spontaneous combustion just breathing the atmospheric oxygen around us.

Cellular injury, ROS, and phagocytosis (defense against foreign objects, mainly microbes) use oxygen in these events, such as ischemia (a condition generated by a loss of supply of oxygen which then also decreases ATP production), and in other conditions in the body that cause more ROS generation from oxygen.

Oxygen has, as given above, 2 unpaired electrons in different orbits that spin parallel to one another. This is an antibonding effect for those electrons. This configuration is most stable (ground state) for oxygen. It is this form that exists around us in nature—the air we breathe. Here, oxygen is a potent oxidizing agent. It is known as a strong oxidant. It will receive electrons from other molecules.

But, the biomolecules (substrates—that which is acted upon), lipids, fats, DNA, carbohydrates, and any organic (contains carbon) molecules have 2 paired electrons with antiparallel spins.

For oxygen to accept a pair of electrons from organic molecules, either one of the oxygen molecules; or, one of the incoming electrons from the substrate (organic molecules) must spin invert. In other words, oxygen and the biomolecules (or substrate) must be parallel to one another in their spins or antiparallel. They become one. They have similar spins in the parallel or antiparallel state. But, there is a Spin Restriction such that "there is a large thermodynamic barrier to spin inversion, and it would have to occur through a multistep process with a high activation energy. The kinetic barrier resulting from this spin restriction slows down direct oxidation of carbon to hydrogen bonds in organic molecules and deters the spontaneous combustion of fuels." — Ibid

This spin restriction forces oxygen to accept electrons in a step–wise fashion, one electron at a time. And, this helps explain why oxygen reacts sluggishly with organic molecules or non–radicals. On the other hand,
oxygen reacts quite expediently with other radicals by transferring single electrons.

Consider this: You have a book that is in pristine condition; that is, the pages are not yellow. Fifteen to thirty years from now you look again at that book and the pages are yellowing and some are dark yellow brown. Years later, many of those pages have disintegrated. What is happening is that the book pages are oxidizing, they are burning very slowly. The oxygen in the air is reacting slowly with the paper and the yellow and brown pages are in a slow burn. But, if you strike a match to the pages, this is bringing a high enough temperature increase whereby it bursts into flames. You added energy in the form of higher temperature.

If a human body, or a plant, or any organic molecules have high temperatures brought near them, homolytic bond fission occurs and oxygen reacts with gusto and leaps onto the radicals formed from the high temperatures, and combustion is started — Gilbert, 1981; Halliwell and Gutteridge, 2006. Most molecules in living things are non radicals, but, apply enough energy and things change; thermodynamic barriers to spin inversions are overcome and spontaneous combustion occurs.

As we move more into the Arm of Orion in the Milky Way Galaxy, enormous energies in the form of huge electric currents and powerful electromagnetic fields are present that can serve as the energy source if we broach them to cause:

We are going to see things we have never seen before! Many are going to perish from this...but, this is dependent upon the Stars and what is in them as we pass near these heavenly bodies.

 

You Must Protect Against Oxidative Stress!


 



Oxidative Stress:
This occurs when ROS production exceeds the cell's removal capacity:

[5.24 Mb]


 


 

To Control Against The Above ROS, Reactive Oxygen Species, Dr. "B" Recommends The Following
  1. Super Carnosine! And since the Worsening Crisis is growing, take four per day.

  2. Super Oxide Dismutase; as above, four per day!.

  3. A special balanced, Vitamin, such as Ultra One! And...

  4. A balanced Mineral, taking one morning and one night! The best he says, is Ultra Mins, with or without iron!


 

Army Times April 6, 2015, reports the following concerning Oxidative Stress:

. . . the resulting damage caused by reactive chemical compounds produced during the normal metabolic process in the brain.

Oxidative stress is known to be associated with a number of different diseases and conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and many other conditions.

One thing they recommend from the new research conducted at the University of Kansas Medical Center, is what Dr. "B" has been recommending for years now, "Glutathione". He recommends Glutathione by Healthy Origins, 500 mg per capsule; twice to four times daily in divided doses.

 

 

"Understand This Carefully, Men," Dr. "B" Told Us. "It Just May Be The Thing, Coupled With What You Have Learned & What I have Been Teaching You To Get Through All This!"

 

 

With getting prepared for what is now breaking upon our shores, and the fact that most are consuming prodigious amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids and have stored such, their protein nutritive value is down. Why? Lipid peroxidation. And you are going to need the protein for the horrendous stress coming from The Killing Mechanism, Part I (A & B) and Part II. Let's make all this clearer.


 

Dr. "B"s Has Just Received This Certificate(s) . . .

It Makes One Wonder, Just What Does He Know That's Coming

That He Is Not Telling Us About...

I Understand...'He's Burning Even More Daylight...Than Ever...'

He's Researching & Studying So Intensively...

From:

 
 

Emergency Management Institute: FEMA

 
 

Anticipating Hazardous Weather & Community Risk

 
 

 


 

Once More, Gentlemen! It Is Extremely Important For You To Burn This Into Your Memory, As You Now Know & Understand The Symbols And What They Mean!

Oxidative Stress — This occurs when ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) production exceeds the cells' removal capacity. "When ROS are produced faster than they can be removed by the cellular defenses, the cellular mechanisms" become stressed by reactive oxygen species:


Reactive Oxygen Species


 
Superoxide Anion
O2-
Produced by the electron transport chain and at other sites. Generates other reactive oxygen species but cannot diffuse far from the site of origin.
Hydrogen Peroxide
H2O2
Not a free radical, but can generate free radicals by reaction with a transition metal (e.g., iron: Fe2+). Can diffuse into and through cell membranes.
Hydroxyl Radical
OH.
The most reactive species in attacking biological molecules. Produced by water in the presence of iron (Fe2+).
Organic Radicals
R.
An organic free radical produced from RH (Polyunsaturated Lipid) by OH. attack. RH can be the carbon of a double bond in a fatty acid (resulting in -C.=C-) or RSH (organic thiol) (resulting in R-S.)
Organic Peroxide         Radical
RCOO.
An organic peroxide radical, such as occurs during lipid degradation.
Hypochlorous Acid
HOCl
Produced in bacteria during the respiratory burst to destroy invading organisms.
Singlet Oxygen
O↑↓
Oxygen with antiparallel spins. Produced at high oxygen tensions from the absorption of energy. Decays with the release of light.

 


 

  • Cellular Defenses:
  •   When oxidative stress is present, cellular defenses go into action quelling the response from reactive oxidative species (ROS). Since there is a continuous generation of ROS from microsecond to microsecond in all the 100 plus trillion cells of the body, cellular defenses are constantly on the move. A number of mechanisms have developed to null and void the ROS reactions, such as Superoxide Dismutase (SOD).

    This removes (see Chart Above: Reactive Oxygen Species) the superoxide anion free radical. Catalase, which is ubiquitous throughout the body, except the brain, and does not seem to diminish much throughout the aging process, scavanges hydrogen peroxide, and glutathione peroxidase removes lipid peroxides (aka lipid hydroperoxides), LOOH.

    Not generally appreciated is that "Since brain has little catalase, this latter enzyme (glutathione peroxidase) possibly is the main one for protection against H2O2 in that organ" — Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Elliott & Elliott, Third Edition.

    You can't go out and buy glutathione peroxidase. If you could, it would be digested by the digestive juices. But, you can get glutathione. Coupled with the proteins in your diet, and if you ingest a little selenium, your body does have at least the raw products to make it if the body is working well enough.

    Glutathione can be purchased at natural food stores and is found in cruciferous vegetables, which include cauliflower, broccoli, brussels sprouts, kale, and cabbage. It is also found in horseradish. However, horseradish may interfere with certain tests your physician may have performed on occasion. Thus, if tests are to be run, be off the horseradish for several days to a week. But, these are the vegetables you most definitely want to grow, in addition to others, when food becomes scarce. Plan ahead and have heirloom seeds stored for these vegetables and others.

    Note!
    Keep in mind, the cruciferous vegetables do interfere with thyroid hormone; therefore, have stored T3, the most active form of TH (thyroid hormone). When consuming these, take a pinch—1/4 of 20 or 25 micrograms, of the active form on an empty (3 to 4 hours without food, vitamins & minerals, iron, or milk...empty) stomach before bed.

    However, there is "leakage" of ROS from cellular compartments, where these ROS products are maintained and broken down. This leakage is increased with consumption of PUFAs, (vegetable oils, fish oil, krill oil, flax and borage oils, etc., but not real Saturated Fat, such as coconut oil and real butter), and, if these deadly components (highly reactive oxygen substances) are not scavenged, they can do damage to surrounding cells and membranes.

    If the cellular compartments become damaged, say from leakage, then a pulse of ROS has free reign to do damage to organelles' membranes, such as mitochondria (cell's powerhouse where ATP is generated); or, to DNA membrane, wreaking havoc on the genome. They are no longer under the "watchful eye" of catalase and other enzymes that scavenge these free radicals. But the damage is quickly contained by other chemicals, vitamins, and the mineral selenium complexed to proteins, which is necessary for the completion of glutathione peroxidase. These peroxidases are selenoproteins found essentially in all tissues. Over time, ravage occurs from "leakage," and one ages.

    With the immense stress now here and more coming very soon now, and the chaos coming to America that one has never seen before, the excessive stress will accelerate ROS damage faster. Just look at the various Presidents of the U.S. when they enter office; then, a few years later; when they leave. Old is the word! And, if you notice carefully when they speak after leaving office, or in a second term, they appear to have cognitive deficits in formulating their words or thoughts near the end of that second term. They do stumble through it, but the vim and vigor is gone. Their aggressive speech is gone...and their bodies are gone...soon for good.

    Peroxisomes are peroxide bodies, known as cytoplasmic organelles. They are involved in oxidative reactions that use molecular oxygen. These peroxide bodies are "a small organelle (a type of microbody) that is bounded by a single membrane and found in plant and animal cells. It contains enzymes that are involved in oxidation processes, some of which generate the highly toxic compound hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Hence, peroxisomes are equipped with catalase, an enzyme that breaks down H2O2 into water and oxygen. Peroxisomes are the main site of fatty–acid oxidation in plant cells and also play a significant role in this regard in animal cells. "They are responsible for neutralizing toxins absorbed from the blood, especially in the cells of the liver parenchyma and proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney"Oxford Dictionary of Biology: New Edition.

    From this, one can see 'What Fresh Hell' is caused to the liver and kidneys of the organism daily. Other cells of an organism are under attack as are these just enumerated.

    There are peroxisome proliferators such as various xenobiotics (drugs, medications, plasticizers, etc.). Peroxisome proliferation is associated with DNA damage in the cell.

    "Reactive oxygen species generated from cellular organelles (in particular the endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes and mitochondria) constitute a major source of oxygen radicals produced in cells. Peroxisomes are major sites of oxygen utilization where molecular oxygen is used to remove hydrogen from organic substrates. An end product of this reaction is hydrogen peroxide. Typically, catalase, which is present in the peroxisomes, reduces the hydrogen peroxide to water. Certain xenobiotics (peroxisome proliferators) are able to induce an increase in the number and size of peroxisomes in the cell.

    "When this occurs, enzymes responsible for beta–oxidation of fatty acids in peroxisomes are increased 20– to 30–fold while catalase activity is increased only two–fold. Thus, more hydrogen peroxide is produced than can be scavenged by the catalase. It has been suggested that hydrogen peroxide can in turn "leak" from these peroxisomes. This additional hydrogen causes an oxidative stress in the cell. The excess production of hydrogen peroxide in the cells has been demonstrated with a number of peroxisome proliferating compounds..."Free Radical Toxicology, p. 379.

    In normal cellular metabolism, such as that found in cytochrome P–450 enzymes, reactive oxygen species may be generated from foreign substances. ROS is everywhere in the body and "leaks" from its protective compartments, causing damage. Obsolescence is built into the body.

    Drugs, medications, just staying alive, exercise, and practically anything that uses oxygen, generates ROS that eventually gets us. There are some things we can do to lessen its effects and excessive generation, such as reducing PUFAs, keeping lipid peroxidation down as much as possible, ingesting a sensible diet with reduced calories, using coconut and some palm kernel oil, real beef fat, butter, lard, and tallow, among other things, but in the end those who survive will be those with superior biochemistries.

    We do not know who they are. Hence, it behooves one to follow the ideas given in this document and hope we improve our biochemistry, such that it will be ready for the tremendous onslaught it has been set up for from the total collapse of our economic system, the unbelievable confusion and chaos that is being generated. Then, we have, possibly, terrific forces coming from the stars, including that from man; especially nuclear war.

  • Vitamins, Minerals & Enzymes Defenses:

    As discussed above, cells have a number of procedures or mechanisms to guard and protect themselves from reactive oxygen species. As given previously, the enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD), scavenges (removes) the free radical, superoxide. SOD is a free radical sink for the superoxide anion.

    "A radical, by definition, is an atom that has an unpaired electron in an outer orbital. It is highly reactive, and can initiate chain reactions by extracting an electron from a neighboring molecule to complete its own orbital. In contrast, the transition metals such as Fe (iron), Cu (copper), and Mo (molybdenum) are more stable and are not considered free radicals.

    "O2 is really a biradical; it has two unpaired electrons. Because the 2 electrons have parallel spins, they cannot form a thermodynamically stable pair, and reside in separate orbitals" Basic Medical Biochemistry: A Clinical Approach.

    Glutathione peroxidase, formed from glutathione, selenium, and proteins, is important with catalase. These two enzymes are necessary for removing hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxides.

    Other antioxidants or cell defenders against reactive oxygen species are vitamins C and E. Cells are also protected by compartmentalization of the mechanisms that generate highly reactive oxygen species. And herein lies a problem we spoke of earlier: If the compartment breaks down or is not repaired properly as one ages; or, due to dysfunction, disease, drugs, microbes, medications, stress, including Radiation, there is an outpouring of ROS that destroys surrounding cell membranes, DNA and other organelles. This is oxidative stress:

    It tilts the "see–saw," ROS to Removal Capacity, in the down–direction toward the position where ROS sits. The up–direction of the see–saw is where cellular compartments are riding, including cellular enzymes, vitamins E and C, and other cell defenses, such as catalase. When ROS is produced faster than they are removed, the ratio of ROS to its Removal is high and Oxidative Stress is occurring.

     

     
    Oxidative Stress

     

      As these processes continue and repair is made, but always with diminishing effect, the organism ages and eventually dies. Obsolescence is built into organisms. You may slow it down with so–called "good nutrition" and ingesting "anti–aging" neutraceuticals, but this is dependent upon one's basic biochemistry: Survival of the Fittest. It is coming and you cannot avoid it. This involves how quickly one repairs, builds, attacks and destroys negatives in the body. It involves how quickly and efficiently one's chemistry sinks ROS. It involves how little one's physiology allows "leakage."

    And all this, coupled to the unbelievable stress we are going to enter into and be forced to endure creates more bond scission — the breaking of a chemical (electrical) bonds (connections) in a compound in which the fragments are unchanged free radicals, such that, if an outside force of enormous magnitude, as that coming from the stars, will cause more than free radicals to be formed, but continue beyond that, such that the electrical connections holding the atoms forming the cells, forming the tissues together, that makes liver, kidneys, muscles, etc., come apart, and do not reform, disintegration occurs. More on this shortly with proteins, DNA, etc.

    The antioxidant vitamins, vitamins E, C, and β–carotene are compartmentalized. Vitamins E and β–carotene are found in membranes as these vitamins are lipid soluble. Vitamin C, being water soluble, is present in the cell's cytosol, the fluid content of the cytoplasm outside of the membrane organelles.

  • More on Reactive Oxygen Species:


  •  

    Health & Sanitation

      The Following Rules Must Be Observed:

    1. Persons with contagious diseases will be isolated immediately!

    2. A Daily Sick Call Shall Be Observed.

    3. Shelter Floors Must Be Kept Clean of Waste Materials.

    4. Anyone Allowed To Your Shelter Shall Not Bring Pets!

    5. Restrooms Must Be Kept Clean At All Times.

    6. Waste Containers Shall Be Disposed of As Soon As Filled.

    7. Drinking Cups Shall Be Marked & Retained for Re–Use By Individual Shelterees.

    8. Towels Shall Be Retained by Individuals for Re–Use As Long As Possible.

    9. Deceased Persons Shall Be Immediately Removed From The Shelter!

     

     

    This Is Some of The Type of Problems We Worked & Studied Daily.

    Dr. "B" Said We Must Improve Our Mindset By Working The Math of Radiation.

    Mathematics Makes Recall & Memory Stronger...Especially When Under The Grave Stress Coming! We Did This Type of Work & More, Several Times Daily!

     

     

       Prove The Left Side Equals The Right Side, Using The Metric Prefixes From Previous Table & The Following:

    1Bq=2.7 x 10-11Ci

    #6.18. Convert 33.3 Bq To 900 pCi; that is, prove the left side ='s the right side; or, visa versa.

    #6.22. 3700-Mbq (100 mCi).

    #6.24. 370-Mbq (10-mCi).

    #6.27. Three-millicuries (111 Mbq).

    #6.32. 10 Ci (0.37 MBq).

     

    Solutions To Above Problems:

    Problem 6.18

    Problem 6.22

    Solution To Problem 6.22

    Problem 6.24

    Solution To P:roblem 6.24

    Problem 6.27

    Solution To Problem 6.27

    Problem 6.32

    Solution To Problem 6.32


     

    Two Very Sobering Thoughts:


     

    From

    The Two-Fold Chastisement:

    Visions of the Coming Earth Changes

     

    Pages 83-84

    Many holy people, seers, and other instruments of God have referred in their prophecies to the vast numbers of dead that will cover the earth when the Chastisement is over. And…there will be no one to bury the bodies. Rose Colomba spoke of "large multitudes" of corpses.

    Saint Gaspar du Bufalo, founder of the Precious Blood Fathers, and who died in 1837, said "The earth will be covered with cadavers. All survivors will therefore think they are alone."

     
     

    Know How To Use The Periodic Table:

    Periodic Chart

    Periodic Chart

     

    <Font Color="yellow">Some Radiation Particles & Their Symbols</Font Color>

     


    Know These Symbols

    For You Who Will Work With

    Alpha Particles; Beta Particles; Neutrons; Gamma Rays; Protons; Electrons; Neutrinos


    Alpha Particle
    • An Alpha Particle is a helium nucleus 4
      2
      He2+
      with a plus 2 charge.

     

    Beta Particle
    • A Beta Particle is a high speed; high energy electron. It is designated by the Greek Letter beta (ß). And the Beta Particle, also known as a 'negatron emission' and is indistinguishable from an ordinary electron, represented by: 0
      -1
      e

    Ordinary Orbital Electron
    • An orbital electron is represented by 0
      -1
      e

    Positron
    • A positron is a beta particle whose charge is positive, contrasted to a negatively charged beta particle by 0
      +1
      e

    Proton
    • An proton is represented by the following symbol and this symbol indicates that it is the nucleus of a hydrogen atom with an atomic number of one and a mass number of one. +1
      +1
      H.

    Neutron
    • A neutron is a neutral particle residing in the nucleus of an atom.+1
      0
      n

     

    Down Load The Above Table To Your Printer . . .


     


    Know These Symbols & How To Use Them!


     
    PrefixEqual toHow Much Is That?AbbreviationExample
    atto-1 X 10-18.000000000000000001 A aCi
    femto-1 X 10-15.000000000000001 F fCi
    pico-1 X 10-12.000000000001 p pCi
    nano-1 X 10-9.000000001 n nCi
    micro-1 X 10-6.000001 µ µCi
    milli-1 X 10-3.001 m mCi
    centi-1 X 10-2.01 c cSv

     

    When The Amount To Be Measured Is 1,000 (i.e., 1 X 103) Or Higher, Prefixes Are Attached To The Unit Of Measure

    To Shorten Very Large Numbers (Also Scientific Notation).

    The Table Below Shows The Prefixes Used In Radiation Measurement And Their Associated Numeric Notations.

     

    PrefixEqual toHow Much Is That?AbbreviationExample
    kilo-1 X 1031000 k kCi
    mega-1 X 1061,000,000 M MCi
    giga-1 X 109100,000,000 G GBq
    tera-1 X 1012100,000,000,000 T TBq
    peta-1 X 1015100,000,000,000,000 P PBq
    exa-1 X 1018100,000,000,000,000,000 E EBq

     


     

    . . . . To Be Continued . . . .

     


     

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