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Food microbiology studies the various organisms that grow in foodstuffs and the immediate environment of food that influences microbial growth. It includes food spoilage and the making of foods such as yogurt, sauerkraut, fermented cheeses, such as Swiss, and sour cream, and buttermilk to name a few.
The Earth is 4.5 billion years old. Bacteria and other microorganisms appeared about 3.5 billion years ago. Dinosaurs left about 65 million years ago. Man only appeared recently, about 6 million years ago. Life on earth is not sterile. Microbes surround us. They will be here when mankind leaves. We will never conquer microorganisms. If we did, life on earth would cease.
Approximately 1/3 of the world's food supply is lost to spoilage. In one's lifetime, earth's population will double; therefore, planet earth cannot afford to lose food to spoilage.
Each year, insects destroy approximately 25% of the world's crops.
If everyone is to eat, spoilage and loss must be reduced. Humanity has hunger hovering over it, and safety, because of this, is being relegated more and more to the back door.
Americans alone waste 43 to 73 billion dollars of good edible food yearly. Some of this is in so-called "food fights." Soon, since parents have not taught their children better, they will be very hungry! And, they have not learned discipline and how to reduce portion size and eat less. They, with their parents, will whine and complain, and complain and whine when they cannot get what they want and in the amounts they want. The stress will take its toll, along with the pathogenic microbial buildup in their bodies. The Killing Mechanism is up and running!
Thirty percent (30%) of the world's population is highly concerned about not getting enough food. Another third is worried about overnutrition. That is, they have so much food (they can waste it) their concern is about food safety. They cannot get to zero risk in terms of food safety—this is impossible, and safe food increases the cost exponentially (rapid increase) as that risk to that society approaches zero, if that could be done.
The question that is facing mankind now is increase food safety or increase availability of foodstuffs. Globalization is causing whole new food safety issues.
For the above reasons and more, you must now know how to make food safe to consume as an end user. This is becoming more and more critical now. This entails having one or more pressure cookers as iterated in these documents, among other things presented.
For the initiated, you are now seeing food shortages, among other things. The uninitiated will not know what is happening until Catastrophic Food Shortages are occurring and rationing begins.
Food microbiology experts feel that only 1% of all the bacteria on earth can be detected by present methods (culture). There are about 99% of the bacteria that remain lurking, seeking their moment, undiscovered.
This presents an interesting thought; also for the 1%. Over one–half of foodborne illness cases have an unknown cause. Viruses may be the cause. We do not know. Or perhaps the illnesses are caused by the 99% of bacteria species that are not culturable. This is not known yet.
We do know now—200 years ago we did not know—that bacteria talk to each other. They communicate using chemical signals that reach sensors of other bacteria and vice versa.
They use what is known as "quorum sensing." Through this means, bacteria determine the size of their colony. Through this means, they decide if they are large enough in numbers to carry out an agenda. This is similar to what you have been seeing in our U.S. Congress recently when they tried to have a quorum to force down Americans' throats the Health Care Bill. The bacteria sense what is going on by using signal transduction. An external signal is transduced to generate a response internally.
From here, God's smallest creatures decide whether to mount an attack bringing on what is known as an infection, or to haul ass. If they are talking, what are their game plans? Can we figure out a way to interdict chemical signals that will inhibit an infectious attack or spoilage by scrambling their signals? This may drown out the signal with white biochemical noise, or block the receptor sites or receivers. You know about pH, temperature and water. We will expand on what has been previously given in these documents to help one in surviving the Coming Chastisement.
Food Intoxications involve the presence of microbial toxins in contaminated food or water. Once the food is eaten, an illness ensues. Food Infections are the processes in which live microbial pathogens in food and water are ingested and then grow in the body. Salmonellosis, shigellosis and cholera are representative examples of the latter. Toxins may result from food infections, but they are the result of infections.—Food Microbiology: An Introduction, Second Edition, Montville and Matthews; Alcamo's Fundamentals of Microbiology with J. C. Pommerville, Eighth Edition.
Staphylococcus aureus is representative of Food Intoxications, and its toxin is not destroyed by heating, even by canning. If you suspect this contamination, destroy all foods suspected. If food is hard to come by, pressure cook at 15 psi for at least an hour or more. This may denature the protein toxin. Best to discard and have a food storage you can depend on in an emergency!
If suspected food is ingested, knowingly or not, there are some things you can precondition yourself with to hopefully, such that "there is no room at the Inn!" for the pathogens, and they do not have a chance to grow and multiply in your colon; and/or become invasive to your body via the bloodstream.
First, we suggest one try and be in as good of health as possible through exercise and the eating of good wholesome food—if you can now find it; a reason you want a home garden producing now! This does not mean "organic foods." These have shown to have as much CFUs (colony forming units, a single bacterial cell multiplying to form colonies; colony units.) as non–organic in many investigations. Second, we suggest you stop eating out and cook your own food and watch for cross-contamination from self or others in your family or kitchen (See previous editions of this series). Cook your food thoroughly. Do not freeze, melt and refreeze meats. Certain microbes become stronger as the weaker ones that are susceptible to the freeze process die off. Those more tolerable to the cold no longer have "competitive exclusion," and thus have a free hand in increasing their CFUs.
Competitive exclusion is "The principle that when two species compete for the same critical resources within an environment, one of them will eventually outcompete and displace the other. The displaced species may become locally extinct, by either migration or death, or it may adapt to a sufficiently distinct niche within the environment so that it continues to coexist noncompetitively with the displacing species. Also called Gause's law." This "Growth of some microbes prevents the growth of other microbes" can be placed to good use.
We suggest one start on the following now that are starred in red, and have the other in abeyance for when the foodborne illnesses strike with a vengence:
- * Betaine HCl with Pepsin: "Milk is an unusually good vehicle for the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms because its fat content protects organisms from stomach acid, and being a fluid, it remains in the stomach a relatively short period of time."— Alcamo's Fundamentals of Microbiology with J. C. Pommerville, Eighth Edition.
If your dehydrated/freeze dried foods contain fat; or, you have fat (whole milk reconstituted) with the reconstituted food(s); then, do ingest the Betaine HCl with Pepsin, minutes prior to eating the food. You should also be advised to do the second item as well.
Practically every other person seems to be on the "purple pill," Nexium or its equivalent. Many of you on this pill probably will not make it because you lack the hydrochloric acid to serve as a first line of defense against the pathogenic microbes as they make emergence in earnest.
- * Super Enzymall—An extremely good digestive enzyme with bile.
- *PB8—An excellent probiotic with Lactobacillus plantarum. This latter fights some pathogenic microbes plus takes up the "Room at the Inn," such that pathogenic bacteria pass on through the small and large colon and into the drain. Also, while in the lumen of the colon, macrophages, an arm of immunity, can attack and destroy them.
- Charcoal: This substances adsorbs various toxins (poisons), thereby neutralizing them. The toxin is not mixed within the substance as a sponge mixes a solution; adsorbtion afixes the toxin by molecular attraction of its substance and the toxins. Take this item as you begin to feel a foodborne illness coming on, such as vomiting, bloating in the gut prior to a "blow–out," typically called gastroenteritis, fatigue and generalized weakness, nausea, malaise, fever. Those are the classical signs and symptoms of most foodborne diseases. The dehydration in an infant or child can be life–threatening, the same as in an elderly. Stay on top of this if and when it comes to your door step.
Remember! It's the dose that makes the toxin! Do not let it get a foothold in your body. That is why you want to follow these prescriptions and proscriptions given here. The botulinnus toxin in the amount of one pint can wipe out the world's population. Boil any food that is suspect, such as that from swollen cans for 30 minutes to deactivate the protein toxin, if present—heat deactivates the toxin. Stomach acid will not deactivate the toxin. The spores ingested by normal adults, producing sufficient stomach acid, are not destroyed by gastrointestinal secretions.
The toxin is not killed by gastrointestinal secretions, only the bacteria's vegetative state. But if they are in the state of dividing and multiplying, this is when they secrete the toxin. It will be a judgement call. Play it safe for this particular microbe: Avoid! Boil, if food is even slightly suspect. Remember, cans do not have to be swollen, no swish, or gas escape when opened, to have botulinus toxin in them. Be extremely cautious when eating your own canned foods. Boil vegetables and meats for 30 minutes, even though your canning manual may say to boil for 10 minutes. Take no chances. Do not taste, smell, or dip your finger in suspect food—this is good advice for any food you are preparing as things go from bad to worse. The spoons, forks, etc. that you ply the food with as it is cooking, wash in bleach and soapy water, after cooking for ten minutes. Change utensils then cook with fresh, clean utensils.
Also, something that many do not know, foodborne illness can come about through abrasions and cuts if the toxin gets in a lesion. Be apprised of this.
- Avoid milk and fatty foods when eating questionable foods! See above.
- Boil everything for at least 30 minutes; forget the ten minute boil rule Do not Sniff, Taste, or Sample any dehydrated, freeze–dried foods, sauce mixes, such as powdered gravies, cake mixes, dinner rolls, cookie doughs, and cornbread mixes, whole milk powder, dehydrated vegetables, dehydrated fruit, dehydrated soups of all kinds, spaghetti sauce mixes and cheese sauce mixes. All are havens for microbes. Watch out for spices, especially cinnamon. Bring to a hard boil and maintain for 30 minutes.
- * FOS. "The sugar mannose is a receptor in the intestinal tract to which bacterial pathogens such as salmonellae bind. Since a yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii contains mannose in its outer wall, some have suggested that the feeding of this yeast to susceptible poults should reduce the attachment of salmonellae. In essence, the yeast cell wall material would outcompete the gastrointestinal tract for the pathogens." Hold this thought from page 630 of Modern Food Microbiology, Seventh Edition, Jay, Loessner, and Golden. Now consider the following:
Science News, December 9, Vol. 170, #24, writes in Milk Therapy,
For a pathogen to infect a person via the digestive tract, it first has to latch on to the sugars that line the gut wall. Oligosaaccharides have binding sites that are identical to the ones on the gut–wall sugars, so the pathogens attach to the oligosaccharides instead of to the lining of the gut. Once bound to oligosaccharides, pathogens travel harmlessly through the intestinal tract.
Suprisingly, bacteria that aid digestion prosper in the presence of oligosaccharides.
FOS is beneficial as a preventative measure for those who travel foreign, and for military personnel who may be exposed to pathogens their bodies are unfamilar with.
We suggest one take Fructosoligosaccharides (FOS) daily, starting now...your children too. One may have been on antibiotics, especially the elderly. Ingesting FOS should enhance the elderly's weakened natural immune system against pathogens (microbes which cause disease). If you have been on antibiotics, prudence would have one ingest FOS also. The logistics of such an action is that they would help the digestive tract recolonize with bacteria that would be beneficial to one's health.
The FOS would keep the pathogenic bacteria in the lumen and not attached to the colon wall. Then, macrophages could do damage to the pathogens before that could cause problems. Your overall immune system could rid one of the damage causing microbes before they could get a "foothold" in your system. By taking the FOS and PB8, you have made "No Room Available At The Inn" for pathogenic bacteria. The thought you were holding and the other you were to consider have now come together.
- * Lactoferrin. We further suggest one start now on a natural antiflammatory and an immune system booster: Lactoferrin. This protein fights viruses, bacteria, and fungi (molds and yeast). Lactoferrin may be used for exaggerated immune response as in arthritis; useful against multiple sclerosis, and septic shock. In the latter, it was shown to dramatically reduce the toxin of toxic shock syndrome in rats in 2001.
Lactoferrin fights viruses, bacteria and fungi. Lactoferrin chews up the cell walls of bacteria. It selectively destroys bacteria cell walls but not those cells walls of beneficial bacteria, as found in PB8. "Even when this protein breaks down in the gut, the fragments fight urinary–tract infections as they are expelled from the body." This would be extremely advantegous for women who tend to get the most urinary tract infections.
- Mediterranean, brown skin, dark skin, and even white skin peoples should be on 5,000 units of Vitamin D3 daily as an adult. A few drops of COD Liver Oil for infants not nursing, and for children, a teaspoon daily. Adults start now. , start the children. Regular readers already know the answer(s) as to why to do this. For now, just do it.
- GABA Calm! From natural food stores. Have a number of bottles or a case stored, and start using when it hits the fan. Use for any members of the family that become very nervous and agitated! Some will become frightened into a clonic (spastic) state, preceded by a tonic (frozen) phase. You have a serious problem on your hands if this occurs in your family or self. Educate members of your family on what to do. Get them warm. They will already be down, so you do not have to be concerned with having them lie down. This fear is similar to an Audiogenic or Sonic fit/seizure. If they exhibit a running fit first, get them down and talk soothingly to them. Get some GABA Calm into them. Cover them if necessary. Death could occur from asphyxiation during the tonic phase of the convulsion, or from cerebral hemorrage.
This will not be a pretty sight! This is another reason to be prepared for sights and sounds you have never before witnessed. It will be as if a thousand demons from Hell have moved into your domicile. Get prayed up now, friends, and annoint your home with oil. A living hell is coming your way! This knowledge will most definitely come in handy when the Three Days' Darkness appears. This will be associated with an earth flip, commonly called a Pole Shift.
Still More Things You Need To Know
These points keep in mind as food scarcity ratchets up. Foods may become more contaminated as they are handled from the farm to the manufacturer. Literally, many hands are in the process. Then you have to be concerned about contaminating the food yourself as you handle it. But as push comes to shove, and as the Division of Labor breaks down, food not only will become scarce, but will probably become more contaminated.
Point 1: Bacteria grow faster in meat–soy blends than in non–soy–containing meats. And soy is in everything. It is also effeminizing. As a man, you will want all the strength and power that your testosterone can generate for the very close coming harsh times ahead. Soy is an estrogen mimetic. It can lock onto your brain cells keeping most of your testosterone from its attachment sites (receptors).
Point 2: Dehydrated foods. We have spoken about this earlier. Keep in mind dehydrated sauces, gravy mixes, spaghetti sauce mixes, soup mixes, and cheese sauce mixes have been found to contain Clostridium perfringens.
Point 3: Powdered eggs and milk often contain high numbers of microorganisms, on the order of 1,000,000 to 100,000,000 per gram of product. One reason for the generally high numbers in dried products of every kind is that the organisms have been concentrated on a per-gram basis as the product is concentrated. The same is true for concentrates of fruit juice, which tend to have higher numbers of microbes than the fresh product itself.
Point 4: Meat is usually cooked before being dehydrated. Be very careful of meat jerky that is dehydrated but not cooked.
Point 5: Some microorganisms are destroyed in the process of drying. However, this process is not lethal, per se, to those microbes, and many types may be, and have been, recovered from dry foods, especially if poor–quality foods are used for drying, such as foods that are not cooked, and if proper practices are not followed in the various drying steps, because most bacteria require a certain amount of unbound water for growth. They play no role in the spoilage of foods.
However, molds and yeast can enter into the equation and spoil foods. But some bacteria may simply lie dormant until replenished with available moisture, such as one sampling of a dehydrated food parcel, or simply adding warm to hot water per instructions, and the bacteria become viable again. This is why we suggest, with what is occurring now, and what is coming, one boil reconstituted foods for ten minutes. We prefer to ignore the 10–minute–boil rule and go for thirty minutes. The troublesome microorganism group in dried foods is mold, with Aspergillus glaucus being notorious for growing at low content of water.
Point 6: Bacterial counts have been found in freeze-dried foods. Although drying, dehydrating, or freeze–drying destroys some microorganisms, bacterial endospores survive, as well as molds and yeast. Many Gram–negative bacteria and many Gram-positive bacteria were found to have survived in a study of bacteria from chicken meat that was cooked and cubed, then freeze–dried and reconstituted at room temperature.
Researchers were able to recover 32% of the original biota—colonies of bacteria. This was the exact type of freeze–dried chicken that people often like to sample dry as they are reconstituting it. In extended tests, Staphylococcus aureus added prior to freeze-drying samples, could survive under certain conditions. Trichinella spiralis have often been reported to survive the drying process. Remember, relatively few organisms are destroyed during the freeze-drying process. However, more are destroyed during freezing than during dehydration.
Point 7: One of the best known ways of preserving microorganisms is the freeze–drying method. Once the process has been completed, the cells may remain viable indefinitely. Upon examining the viability of 277 cultures of bacteria, yeast, and molds that had been lyophilized (freeze–dried) for 21 years, a researcher found that only 3 cultures failed to survive.
Source: Modern Food Microbiology: Seventh Edition
Think about the above points the next time you are tempted to taste dehydrated or freeze-dried foods before cooking. This includes jerky that is not cooked before drying. We no longer advocate just adding warm to hot water per the manufacturer's instructions, then stirring and eating. As the division of labor breaks down, and as more cheap labor has been working in factories and industries, and food industries, we advocate rehydrate, boil for 30 minutes.
When things really get bad, and they are coming fast now, we advocate to pressure cook at 15 psi for 10 minutes. If Staphylococcus aureus is about, and the media is proclaiming its presence in foods, we highly recommend to pressure cook in order to destroy the endotoxin, for at least an hour and thirty minutes. You will make a gorgeous, superbly smooth, easily digestible, velvety soup. And remember the above rules. Take your acid tablets first, your digestants next, and be on PB-8. If problems seem to be developing in your family, immediately all start on charcoal.
"But I don't have charcoal. I forgot to get charcoal."
That is why you have a food storage program with flour, ready to make into breads, into risen bread or a quick bread like wraps. Cook them, then char them on an open flame or in a toaster if the electricity is still up. Toast, scrape, toast, scrape, toast, scrape, and serve immediately. You have just made charcoal for your family.
More On Competitive Exclusion !
What the scientists call Competitive Exclusion was once called Competitive Inhibition.
Competitive Inhibition/Competitive Exclusion:
The average human body contains some 10 trillion cells in its make–up and harbors some 100 trillion bacteria. These microbes normally live in and on the human body in a ratio of 10:1; yet, we are surprisingly healthy for it. This illustrates that most microorganisms are not pathogenic under normal conditions; and they also benefit humans and animals as well. In industrialized countries, viruses cause 60% of all disease–causing illness; whereas approximately 15% is caused by bacteria, according to estimates.
The disease producing (pathogenic) microbes are in the minority, as well as those that cause food spoilage, such as fats and oils going rancid; grains, fruits, and vegetables developing mold.
Those that normally reside in or on the body are known as the normal flora or normal microbiota. There are seven areas microbiota are normally found: Skin, conjunctiva of the eyes, nose and throat, the colon, lower part of the urethra in males and females, and the vagina in women.
Once this normal microbiota is established in humans, it prevents the overgrowth of harmful organisms through competitive inhibition, a process whereby the normal flora (a) compete for nutrients, (b) affect the pH environment, making it unsuitable for invading microbes, and (c) produce compounds that kill or inhibit the invading bacteria's growth, as well as (d) affects available oxygen present. When these normal processes are interrupted, disease can result.
For example, the normal adult vagina has a pH of 3.5 to 4.5—a moderately strong acid. The yeast, Candida albicans, is found on the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and in the vagina. From over–using antibiotics, vaginal deodorants, and excessive douching, the delicate balance of normal bacterial flora to opportunistic organisms—in this case, C. albicans, in the vagina is thrown off and its pH approaches near neutrality, 7.0. Then the yeast–like organism becomes the leading microbe there, causing vaginitis.
Competitive inhibition is important to prevent or inhibit the overgrowth of harmful intestinal organisms, such as Escherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella, Shigella, Candida albicans, and amoebae. With sufficient intestinal probiotic microbiota present, creating a competitive environment in the intestines, you also compete with botulism organisms, Clostridium botulinum, before they can produce their deadly toxin.
For what's coming, the authors of this book feel, diabetics, children, imunocompromized persons, the elderly, as well as healthy individuals should take the amino acid, L–arginine (or eat meat) with the probiotic, L. plantarum (It is not be recommended to take arginine if you are taking Viagra or nitroglycerine). The nitric oxide (NO) produced, kills or controls a large number of microorganisms and possibly parasites, by cocking and priming the immune system. White blood cells of the immune system use NO in the destruction of target cells, such as bacteria and tumors. Other good sources of arginine are almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts, walnuts, and nuts in general — Chemical/Biological WarFare: How You Can Survive, Third Edition, Brocato and King.
For these above reasons, we suggest one start now on a good probiotic, such as PB8 by Nutrition Now. It contains Lactobacillus plantarum. It is further suggested one ingest Claussen (from the dairy case; it is fermented) Sauerkraut, which adds healthy bacteria to the colon. In your quest for excellent colon health, your WebMasters suggest that one consume a good natural brand of yogurt, such as Dannon All Natural Nonfat Yogurt (full fat if you can find it), Plain. We do not recommend one eat the yogurts with fruit, unless it is not with fruit preserves with too much sugar and/or made with corn syrup.
Undoubtedly, from above, one probably contracts a harmful bacteria; yet, it does not phase them because it is held in check with Competitive Inhibition. What is coming to our doorsteps is not going to be healthy, nor pretty. Do what you can now!
As more and more go without work, things will deteriorate more. It will be like a run–away train, and when it hits something, most things will be demolished.
Soon, we will see The Division of Labor breaking. Once broken, shortages will be everywhere. We have written about much this in the past. The pain, we feel, will be onerous.
Disease will be ramped up. Old diseases will return with a vengeance; new ones will emerge. The Microbiology of Foods and Food Storage is going to be of key importance in the–not–too distant future.
Most people take food sanitation for granted. From now on, you will have to be the sanitizer. If not, you will be prostrate...and may not recover!
Take this little test. This will let you know where you stand somewhat. Professor Alcamo, formerly of New York State University, gives this test to his students:
Keeping Microorganisms Under Control
How knowledgeable are you concerning food safety in your home or apartment? If you are, do you actually practice what you know? Take the following quiz (honestly) and then we will see microbes lurk and where you need to eliminate or keep them under control.
25.1. Your refrigerator should be kept at what temperature?
- 0° C (32° F)
- 5° C (41° F)
- 10° C (50° F)
- Do Not Know.
25.2. Frozen Fish, Meat, and Poultry Products Should Be Defrosted by
- Setting Them on The Counter For Several Hours.
- Placing them in the refrigerator.
25.3. After cutting raw fish, meat, or poultry on a cutting board, you can safely
- Reuse the board as is.
- Wipe the board with a damp cloth and reuse it.
- Wash the board with soapy hot water, sanitize it with a mild bleach, and reuse it.
25.4. After handling raw fish, meat, or poultry, how do you clean your hands?
- Wipe them on a towel.
- Rinse them under hot, cold, or warm tap water.
- Wash them with soap and warm water.
25.5 When was the last time you sanitized your kitchen sink drain and garbage disposal?
- Last night.
- Several weeks ago.
- Several months ago.
- Cannot remember.
25.6 Leftover cooked food should be
- Cooled to room temperature before being put in the refrigerator.
- Put in the refrigerator immediately after the food is served.
- Left at room temperature overnight or longer.
25.7 How do you clean your kitchen counter surfaces that are exposed to raw foods?
- Use hot water and soap, then a bleach solution.
- Use hot water and soap.
- Use warm water.
25.8. How was the last hamburger you ate cooked?
25.9. How often do you clean or replace your kitchen sponge or dishcloth?
- Every few weeks.
- Every few months.
25.10. Normally dishes in your home are cleaned
- By an automatic dishwasher and air–dryer.
- After several hours soaking and then washed with soap in the same water.
- Right away with hot water and soap in the sink and then air–dried.
So, how did you do? Answers found here.
Keeping Microorganisms Under Control
25.1. Your refrigerator should be kept at 5° C (41° F). Although this temperature will not kill most microbes, it will slow their growth, making it less likely you might spread [germs] or could get sick from food stored there.
25.2. Freezing also does not kill all microbes. So, foods like frozen chicken should not be set on the counter to defrost. You risk illness as bacteria grow rapidly at room temperature. Microwaving the food following package directions or thawing it in the refrigerator will keep any microbes from growing. Incidentally, that kitchen sponge you used to clean up spilled food juices should be rinsed and sanitized by microwaving it 20 seconds.
25.3. Raw foods can be contaminated with several disease–causing microbes that can cling to a cutting board. So, clean that board with soap and hot water and then sanitize it with a mild bleach solution (or put it in the dishwasher).
25.4. Wash your hands with soap and warm water for about 20 seconds so you don't deposit harmful bacteria on other surfaces. Also, keep tabby away from kitchen counters and where food is being prepared. Pets carry and spread diseases to foods.
25.5 You sink drain and garbage disposal can harbor several species of viruses and bacteria. Some sinks can contain more bacteria than in a flushed toilet. So every week you should sanitize your drain; pour a solution of 1 teaspoon of chlorine bleach in 1 quart of water down the drain.
25.6 In the oven, the high temperatures used in cooking kill microbes. However cooled leftovers should be refrigerated within two hours after cooking. Once refrigerated, they are safe to eat for three to five days.
25.7 Did you clean your kitchen counters after preparing raw food? Hot, soapy water and a dilute chlorine bleach are recommended. Hot water and soap alone do not get rid of all possible bacteria.
25.8. Meats should be cooked until there is no red seen and the juices run clear. Well–done meats that reath 160° F kill foodborne microbes. Meats and other improperly cooked foods can retain food–borne microbes.
25.9. Most kitchen sponges contain some bacteria that can make people sick. In one study, 20 percent of sponges and dishrags collected from many of the 1,000 kitchens tested in five American cities contained Salmonella bacteria, which can cause food poisoning, typhoid fever, and gastrointestinal diseases. So, microwave that damp kitchen sponge for 20 seconds and wash disrags. Also, change to a new sponge often or use a germ–resistant sponge.
25.10. Now that dinner is over, what to do with the dishes? Don't soak them for several hours because the soaking water becomes "nutrient broth" for bacteria. Either wash them in the dishwasher and air–dry them, or wash them within two hours in hot, soapy water and let them air–dry.
So, how did you do? Return To Where You Were
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As you use your computer, overtime, it slows down!
If your computer downloads slowly, you need to daily do the Following:
- Defrag your machine.
- Use a Cleaner, such as CCleaner (one can also use their Defragger) to Optimize your computer for better performance. Get them here: http://www.ccleaner.com/. It's Free!
- If you find a download from email coming down very slowly; simply close your computer and reboot. Then restart the download.
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You Must Defrag Your Computer Regularly
Clean The Registry and Optimize the Machine Regularly
It Will Run Very Erratic and Quite Slowly!
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