Your Survival Key
One of the keys to your survival in the event of earth changes will be pure water for drinking, preparing food, washing dishes and brushing teeth. It will be more important than Gold or Silver. Many are storing gold and silver for the coming changes: The Total Collapse of the Stock Market, The Coming Earth Changes, and other Crisis. Yet, they are in denial because they either have not stored water and food; or, only a few weeks to a month or so. Even more, they have learned much about gold and silver, storing food, and a modicum about water storage.
The following should give you light to in depth information about water and things you may not know about it and its storage.
The easiest way to purify water is by keeping it at a rolling boil for 10 minutes to kill any disease-causing bacteria. To improve the taste, try adding a pinch of salt to each quart. Water that has been stored for any length of time is best aerated by pouring it from one bucket to another several times to improve its taste.
However, though "It is common knowledge that boiling water for 15 - 20 min is sufficient for destruction of the pertinent microorganisms. This treatment is limited to emergency situations and is frequently recommended by utilities in such cases." ----Chemistry of Water Treatment, 2nd. Edition; 1999. And it may not get all cysts and spores.
Note the key words, pertinent microorganisms and emergency situations. What this means to the reader of this page is, if you did not prepare for The Total Collapse of the Financial System, etc.; boiling should get you through, but you want to have more for water purification (what this page is about) than just heat for boiling. You want clean, pure, potable (drinking) water. But, many of the microorganisms in water are not all bad. It is the harmful ones you want out and boiling seems to do the job in most cases.
Boiling does kill pertinent bacteria. The boiling process "kills vegetative bacterial and fungal pathogens and many viruses within 10 minutes; less effective on endospores." (See: Physical Methods Used to Control Microbial Growth, table later). And, as the water is boiled, some is evaporated off in the process thereby concentrating any heavy metals, salts, nitrites/nitrates and other contaminants left in the raw water or even the tap water if a problem presents a temporary to permanent malfunction in the water treatment process. You don't want these contaminants either. This document will show you how to get ride of these too.
You can also use the metal ions, (Ag+), Silver, for the purification of water. This has been known since antiquity. There are reports, and more will occur in the not-too-distant future, of European and Russian uses of this precious metal in the water supplies of villages. The advantages of silver are long residual bactericidal activity with low concentrations of the metal.
The disadvantages are that you must pretreat the raw water to remove turbidity, organic color, dissolved volatile organic chemicals, and so forth. Also, spores and cysts are resistant. Cold temperatures reduce the efficiency of the silver ions. You need long contact times of the silver with the microbials.
To improve taste by pouring stored water from one bucket to another prior to use, does not improve taste by putting oxygen in the water; but does so by helping--in a very small manner (possibly)--remove some volatile organic chemicals, and help in removing hydrogen sulfide that causes bad taste and odors.
Most people assume, often erroneously, that if the water is smelly and taste bad, it is bad. This is seldom the case, but, nevertheless, people won't drink smelly, off-colored, tasting water. More often than not, after aeration, bucket to bucket type, a small, depending on the supply of water, sludge is formed trapping the odorous components that must be removed by coagulation (flocculation) and sedimentation; then filtration. Also, you want to get rid of naturally occuring organic matter, such as Amino acids, algae, breakdown products of humic and fulvic acids that can lead to off-tasting water, and other things. We show you how, as best possible, on this page for the harsh things coming. Water will be one of the dire things in short shrift when this all goes down.
In the J. Am. Water Works Assoc., Pangborn, R. M. and L.L. Bertolero; 64:511 (1972) points out that the insipid, flat tasting of water is not caused, as commonly believed, by low levels of dissolved oxygen or the salts of minerals. Test were performed for dissolved oxygen on distilled water vs non-distilled water (clean and pure of course) with 1000 mg/L NaCl, and it was found that no significant distinctions could be made as to the oxygen content or mineral salts affecting taste. "These data led to the conclusion that DO (dissolved oxygen) content had little, if any, effect on the taste of drinking water." ----The Chemistry of Water Treatment, 2nd. edition; 1999.
Two chemicals usually found in the home will be effective for water disinfection.
Other iodine water purification methods use Iodine Crystals. Two that we highly recommend, and have tested ourselves, are:
Iodine Crystals; USP For Water Purification Use Only: 4-ounce bottle treats 1,000 gal. water. Millennium Outfitters, LLC (541) 865-3370.
Polar Pure Water Disinfectant. Treats up to 2000 quarts of water (500 gal). Call NITRO-PAK; Voice: 1-800-866-4876; Fax: 1-888-NITRO-PAK. Also, ask them to send you their complete catalog. Tell them we sent you.
Another alternative is water purification tablets, available at drug stores or the camping supply areas of other stores. Follow the manufacturer's directions. One researcher writes that the water purification tablets tend to last only 6 months or so... And, if they are turning gray and/or powdery, they have lost most of their potency!
Or, you might want to invest in one of several household water purification systems. This usually includes a filter for suspended particles, an activated carbon filter to absorb organic molecules from contaminants, such as herbicides (they'll probably be volatilized: removal--fair to excellent for Granulated Activated Charcoal (GAC), and poor to good for Powdered Activated Charcoal (PAC); and, an iodine treatment for bacteria. NASA uses iodination in the astronauts space flights to protect the water supply. Iodination is also used by the U.S. Forest Service---and has for years---in its remote stations. The armed services uses iodine under field conditions.
We have found a new product called the E Still. The product is new and purifies water from any available heat source. The still removes 99% of any water contaminates, making it usable in a medical situation.
You can use river water, creek, sloughs, sea water, and swimming pool water---many homes have pools. The unit has no moving parts and produces 3/4 of an ounce of water per minute! It holds 24 ounces of water for purification. Price: Approximately $159.00 - $190.00. Limited supply. Only one company makes it and there are no commerical alternatives. We highly recommend one.
You can receive one now, but when the rush starts, you probably won't be able to get it---the demand will be too high. Order from The Natural Answer, 1108 Camino Real #301, Redondo Beach, CA. 90277, (310) 545-7676. Ask for Mark; tell him we sent you; or:
The Moss Company; 105 Moss Lane; Landrum, S. C., 29356; 1-800-786-1120; Price: $159.00 plus $5.00 s/h. Tell them we sent you.
A New Danger
A new crisis has now developed with our water that you are not being told about. Many people across the nation, where I am invited to give lectures about what's coming and how to survive, tell me they have developed cisterns for collecting, storing, and using their rain water supply. At one time, rain water was relatively pure, depending on how you caught and stored it. This is no longer the case.
Even if this rain water is distilled, you still have a problem with it. This information also goes for mountain streams, creeks, and so forth. According to Swiss chemist, Stephen Muller, at the General Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, much rain water is contaminated today with pesticides from crops.
The mechanics happen this way: the organic chemical, common pesticides, such as alachlor, atrazine, 2,4-dinitrophenol, and the herbicide glyphosate, after being sprayed over the farming community (even popular weed killers such as Roundup®, Eazy Weeder®, and Slam®, that non-farmers use throughout America) are volatile (vaporize) to the air, combining with water vapor in the clouds to rain down miles away. If a rain occurs just shortly after crop spraying, then that which falls in the immediate vicinity is extremely concentrated with pesticides and herbicides.
Being in the falling rain, if used as such, you could be setting yourself up for various diseases. Even if you drink the tap water, these pesticides and herbicides are now reaching the ground water, not to mention the rivers, lakes, etc. Oh.....they're also reaching your swimming pools!
At a time you need problems less, you may inadvertantly be setting yourself up
for, according to European Research, to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, a very rapidly increasing cancer in Western societies. Also, according to the latest research, much bottled water is actually tap water that may not have been filtered as you would expect. In fact, a recent survey by the FDA states that 31% of the 52 brands they tested had traces of bacteria in them.
To further the problem, manufacturers often use a cheap plastic for their bottles, such that methyl chloride and xenoestrogens (carcinogens that cause fertility problems and initiate reproductive tissue cancer) and other toxins are leached out, and you drink these, too.
The Swedish scientists discovered that Europeans and Americans who developed this cancer were more likely to have been exposed to the glyphosate herbicide. Other researchers point out that this herbicide and other well used pesticides inhibit the immune system and bring about initiation for the formation of cancer. The glyphosate herbicide is in our drinking water and rain water.
With what you have just been given, then if you distill your water, from whatever sources---and we feel you should, you will remove only 99% of the impurities. That leaves only 1% impurities, so your water is 99% pure. Thus, you want to distill your water by whatever means, but make sure you have a separate unit to filter out the 1%. Because, even if you distill, remember, this is just like a vaporization, and you are going to get the "pesticides"---small as it is, in the distillate---that which you drink.
A good distillation system will remove all kinds of bacteria, pathogens, parasites, viruses, as well as herbicides, pesticides, organic and inorganic chemicals, along with heavy metals (arsenic, lead, etc.), and copper and rust too, which may have been dissolved in the water and are too heavy to rise with the steam formed during the boiling process. All this stays behind in the boiling tank. Many organic chemicals can boil over to the distillate when they volitilize (convert) to a gas, combining with the water wapor during the boiling process, and then, condensing back into dissolved chemicals in the water to give the distillate. For this, you want a vented distillation system, and since the ones we have found use electricity, you will have to aerate using Method A or Method B below.
This is why you want a water distillation unit fitted with a carbon filter and a venting system to remove volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) ....and since we have not found any distillation units, fitted as such, that work without electricity----something we may not have for a while, or sporadically, then we suggest taking the distillate and filtering through a water filter pitcher unit to, hopefully, remove a portion of volitilized or boiled over gases, after stripping them from the raw water using the aeration methods given later.
When distilling, most to all organic chemical particulates, pesticides, herbicides, etc., have been left behind in the boiling tank of the distillation unit (or aerated off earlier--if you did not use sloppy technique). When the steam has condensed back into water----it is this water you pass through an activated charcoal filter for the final treatment. Test show granular activated carbon (GAC) removal of fair to execllent, and powdered (PAC), what is mostly found in most commercial water filter pitcher units, variable in the range of poor to excellent, for organic material. This is why we suggest a pre-treatment modality (follows below) for obtaining pure, clean, drinking (potable) water. When the going really gets rough, we also suggest you devise your own GAC filter.
We now have an E Still and it does have a carbon rod, also known as a carbon post-filter (simply an activated charcoal filter). We still suggest a water filter pitcher unit too. However, the E Still does not have a venting system, such that the volatile organic compounds/chemicals (VOCs) are removed automatically prior to reaching the distillate. You will have to use aeration Methods A or B.
We have not found any vented designs for distillation units not requiring electricity. A vented design purges volatile organics instead of concentrating them in the distillate, for example, chloroform, that is formed eventually from chlorine that is a disinfectant for water purification systems. Chloroform is one of the trihalomethanes (THMs) found in water so treated.
We will show you a pre-treatment modality or manner that will remove just about all or reduce to acceptable levels, any substances prior to your distillation thereby enhancing the distillation process for pure, clean water. The modalities that follow later will consist of Aeration, Coagulation (flocculation), Sedimentation, and Filtration with activated charcoal. The latter removes, among other things, contaminations caused by any stainless steel distillation units.
"Charcoal is a substance in which the surface atoms are an appreciable fraction of the total number. It consists of porous carbon having a net work of fine tunnels extending through the specimen." Activated charcoal is very spongy, and as such, it has a high ratio of surface area to weight. With such a large surface area, carbon atoms have a large unsaturated valence area too, to attract substances.
"They can attract molecules, especially polar molecules, thus accounting for the high adsorption that is characteristic of charcoal." Adsorption is the process whereby there is an adherence of atoms, ions, or molecules of a gas or liquid to the surface of another substance. For example, "When a mixture of hydrogen sulfide, H2S, and oxygen is passed over a charcoal surface, the H2S is selectively adsorbed. Because H2S is a polar molecule with the sulfur end more negative than the hydrogen end, it is more strongly adsorbed than the oxygen molecule, which is symmetric and nonpolar."
"The charcoal gas mask makes use of this principle of selective adsorption. The charcoal selectively adsorbs poisonous gases, which are usually complicated polar molecules, and lets the oxygen through for respiration."
"At higher temperatures molecular motion makes adsorption more difficult. Thus, spent charcoal with its surface completely covered may be reactivated"----Notice the word, reactivated!--- "by heating it up to drive off the adsorbed gases. At low temperatures, where molecular motion is slight, adsorption increases. In fact, at very low temperatures selectivity is less pronounced, and even nonpolar molecules may be adsorbed, presumable because of van der Waals attraction." -- Sources: Chemical Principles and Properties, Second Edition; Sienko and Plane, McGraw Hill, p. 253, 1974. Reviewing Chemistry; Gelender Amesco; and, The Condensed Chemical Dictionary, Tenth Edition, Revised by G.G. Hawley.
Wood Charcoal/Ashes Are Not Activated Charcoal:
Burning wood, gives you wood ashes---not activated charcoal. Many are unaware of this and assume they are both the same, they're not! By using the former (wood ashes and chunks of burned wood, known as "charcoal" to the unwary), they are taking a great risk.
They will not get charcoal or activated charcoal with an increased adsorptive (attracts and holds on its surface) area. Destructive distillation of wood gives wood alcohol, acetone, acetic acid, and charcoal (wood charcoal). Activated charcoal is charcoal that has been fashioned (see below), such that its surface area has been increased---it has been activated. By heating with steam, the surface area has been increased (adsorptive) to 125 acres per pound! This type of charcoal (activated) can be recycled by boiling, heating in steam, or burning off any impurities. Adsorption is not absorption---a quality of being assimilated; incorporation.
Therefore, you can recycle your charcoal gas mask canister recommended elsewhere on this web site. We suggested the Israeli gas mask and extra canisters. From the information we are uncovering, you should be able to boil the canisters out; or, try taking them apart and replacing the activated charcoal. But be warned! The outgassing principle (see Chemical/Biological WarFare .... How You Can Survive) will work against you when you reactivate them. Best to discard them after first neutralizing the canisters by pouring Clorox or NAOH (Lye--caustic soda) through the canister. After saturating with either of these chemicals, you should be able to then boil out the neutralized adsorbed neural agents and reuse. Or, if you prefer, replace with virgin carbon.
Wood Charcoal is wood that has been burned in the absence of air or oxygen (destructive distillation of wood). The highly carbonaceous material, wood in this case, is subjected to high temperature, in the absence of air, resulting in decomposition to solids, liquids, and gases. Its adsorptive powers are variable at most. It comes in technical grade, lumps; powdered, and in briquettes (charcoal). Use Activated Charcoal. Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences; 16th Edition, 1980, The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science, says on page 752:
"Charcoal (wood) made by this process was variable in its adsorptive powers, frequently being entirely devoid of such properties. It was found that the adsorptive powers of charcoal could be tremendously increased by treating it with various substances such as steam, air, carbon dioxide, oxygen, zinc chloride, sulfuric acid, or phosphoric acid, or a combination of some of these substances, at temperatures [Underscoring WebMasters; also, other texts say similar] ranging from 500 degrees to 900 degrees.
"This treatment is referred to as activation, the activating agent presumably removing substances previously adsorbed on the charcoal and, in some instances at least, breaking down the granules of carbon into smaller ones having a greater total surface area. It has been estimated that 1 ml of charcoal, finely divided, possesses a total surface of approximately 1000 meters square."
Sooo...what does this mean to you. It means you need to get a water distillation unit and an activated charcoal (carbon) filter unit. You can use straight activated charcoal, the kind you buy at pet shops; set it up into some sort of filter unit for the distillate (water that has been distilled); or, simply get a water filtration unit for use after you have distilled your swimming pool water, swamp water, sea and any other kind of water---even, oh yes, urine, if it comes down to that, as it happened during WWII.
The units already have a carbon (activated charcoal) unit that comes with the water pitcher units. The thing is: You have to keep buying the carbon filters. What you're not told, as you can surmise from the above, is that you can boil or steam them for 5 minutes or so and reactivate the carbon elements---some more expensive units allow you to do this. If not, replace with virgin carbon.
However, there is some concern here. Because the temperatures for this second reactivation do not reach the 500 to 900 degrees C that some technical material calls for. But, High Capacity Water Filter (see below) with a carbon filter says its filters can be recharged by this method---boiling them for 5 minutes in water to evaporate chlorine used in chlorine treated water. We suggest the water be filtered.
Nevertheless, if you (a) boil out your filters, then you could try backflushing first. But, since the incoming port to the filter screen is so small, compared to the outport screen, you may not be able to backflush the refuse (contaminates) out sufficiently, by forcing clean water from the outport screen through the import screen. Then, pour (b) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) through the outport screen until the filter is saturated. Let rest for 15 to 20 minutes to kill microorganisms; then boil for 10 minutes. We did our Brita® as such and it did not melt, and it works beautifully. If this does not work for you, after testing your spent filter, then replace the filtering unit(s) if you stored enough; or, make your own (see below) using Activated Carbon (charcoal).
Futhermore, Pur® says their filters can be used in Brita® water filtration pitcher units. We have found this not to be so. Upon testing for chlorine in filtered water, after replacing a Brita® filter with a Pur®, we discovered chlorine levels to be almost equal to unfiltered water. We suspect the fit was not what it should have been. Nevertheless, the chlorine levels were unacceptable to us. We used various tests given in this document. In the end, we boiled out our used Brita® and returned it to use and tested it. Chlorine levels tested non-existent, again, using the various tests given in this document.
And that is the thing you most definitely want to do---boil them out--- though, it will be good to store a number of the carbon elements, you can't store that many and they get expensive. If, after testing (discussed later), the activated charcoal, often powdered in the units, don't reactivate, you have to discard and use a virgin unit. Or, if you can, open up the unit and change out the powdered activated charcoal, and replace with either powdered or Granular Activated Carbon (charcoal), GAC.
Hopefully, the manufacturers haven't made them whereby the filter units melt in boiling water, or they have thought of this and took this into consideration in its manufacture, such that you have to continually buy new filters. Other elements in the filter could be damaged---but that is not the point! You're after the activated charcoal without having to fool with charcoal powder, a bucket with holes in it, etc., into ad infinitum, because the distillation process has taken care of the other contaminates.
So, get a water filter pitcher unit, such as the Brita® and/or Pur® found at Walgreens, and elsewhere.
These units elininate 99% of lead and other contaminates; however, be sure and check the labels and instructions to see what they purport to remove. The distillation, combined with this type of unit should give the most desirable results.
These cheaper units may not remove arsenic, lead, copper, parasites, sodium (more expensive ones remove some sodium), sulfates, nitrates, chlorine, and fluoride. Normally, however, chlorine and fluoride are removed and thus, these units are effective in removing the odor of chlorine. But with fluoride, you can't smell or taste it.
Water Test Kit:
Swimming Pool Test Kit: We suggest you get a home swimming pool test kit for chlorine and pH for around $5.00. This will give you a ball park figure for any excess chlorine coming over if you plan to chlorinate your water first---we plan to use iodine (see iodine crystals above)--- when tap water is suspicious, or when using any other source of water, and the water is still to be distilled. (We wish to be doubly safe!) However, the distilling process itself should take care of all germs, viruses, and so forth. This is especially so in the case of using other waters.
If you are using only an inexpensive everyday, storebought, water filtration system, then you had better chemically purify your water before using, if it is suspicious. This goes for tap water, too.
Also, start on distilled water or stored water several days in advance if possible. If nothing suspicious is happening around you, you're not out of any thing---namely, your health. One researcher says municipalities may not tell you that too much flouride or chlorine has been or was dumped into the water. Stay alert and look for signs of people getting sick from the drinking water---especially gastrointestinal problems.
Take into consideration this too: Your everyday, inexpensive water filtration pitcher units are not designed to clean ditch water, swimming pool water for drinking and so forth. They are to be used only with recognized clean tap water. This means, if you are suspicious of the water, purify it FIRST, using chlorine or iodine (preferably the iodine for reasons given above); then filter it through your water filtration pitcher. More expensive units allow you to filter even ditch water. We suggest you still purify it first; but before that, as in all purification process, remove as much debris as possible with a cloth, and then use your more expensive gravity filtration pitcher unit. Better yet, get an E Still and distill after removing debris and purifying with iodine or chlorine.
I think you now see why we still prefer the better distillation units that need no electricity, only a heat source. We still recommend several inexpensive units for the carbon filter reasons and also, one good, expensive gravity unit.
If you are using tap water, and problems occur, then you want to be sure you have some means of testing it to ascertain if there is any chlorine present. It appears the bigger problem will be "under" purification, and not over.
- Reagent Strips for Urinalysis: If you have some extra lying around, then you can test for "nitrites" and this may help determine if raw sewage, bacteria, and nitrogenous fertilizers have contaminated your drinking water. Because, nitrites and "nitrates" are an indication for bacterial presence; but, most bacteria in water are not harmful. Bacteria convert protein into ammonia, nitrites and nitrates.
- Our Good Test: "Inexpensive and easy, but limited coverage. Everything you need to analyze your water at home is included. You don't need to send anything away to a lab. Test for Ph [sp], hardness, alkalinity, iron bacteria, hydrogen sulfide. #12-228; $29.95." Call 1-330-857-5757, Lehman's. Comment: This is a one-time test.
- Water Test Kit: "Perform four important experiments about water pollution. Test water samples for dissolved oxygen content, chlorides, phosphates (a test for for fertilizers; phosphates can also be there from your home water treatment system, if you have one, to remove excess iron), and water hardness. All tests provide professional results. Includes all necessary apparatus and materials. #X81-578, $55.00." Edmund Scientific's; 1-800-728-6999:
The information booklet with the test, on page 12, from GSC International, Inc., Manufacturer and supplier of Scientific, Educational and Laboratory Products, Student Test Kit, #2000-29, says:
"Nitrates are a large pollution problem. They are introduced into the water system from natural and man-made sources. The natural sources are dead plants and animals that decay.
"The bacteria which causes decay break down chemicals, specifically proteins, into ammonia which is eventually changed by other groups of bacteria into nitrates. This process of decay takes place in the water. It is part of the cycle of life. It means that chemicals can be reused to provide nutrients (food) for other living things. For example, plants (simple ones, such as algae, as well as more complicated one such as trees) need nitrates in order to survive.
"A second source of nitrates is sewage (human and animal wastes). When the sewage decays, nitrates are one of the products.
"This type of pollution definitely makes the water undrinkable and unattractive due to the presence and the smell of decaying materials. It encourages the growth of several kinds of bacteria.
"Nitrates in the water can make the water unsafe for another reason. Young children (less than one year of age) can be poisoned by nitrates (WebMasters observation: Nitrates and nitrates are used in food preservatives).
"The United States Public Health Service recommends that water with more than 45 ppm of nitrates should not be given to children because nitrate poisoning causes a condition similar to suffocation.
"Small children change nitrate to nitrite. The nitrite then reacts with the hemoglobin (the substance in our blood which carries oxygen). After this reaction, the hemoglobin cannot carry oxygen. The nitrate to nitrite reaction only takes place in very young children."
- How Clean Is The Water: "Conduct experiments about the chemicals and organisms that pollute our water and how our water can be purified. With this kit, you will be able to test the level of bacteria in water, the chloride content, the PH level, and the rate at which particles settle in water. #X81-577. $39.95." Edmund Scientific's; 1-800-728-6999.
- Waterworks Test Strips: Rapid and accurate test results, from tap water, lakes and streams. Test a wide range of chemicals and metals. No reagents to mix or handle, nothing to add. Simply dip and read for accurate analysis of even low concentrations. H365330: Free Chlorine, $15.95; 50/Pk. H365335: Iron (Fe+2 Fe+3), $13.95; 50/Pk. H365336: Nitrate and Nitrite Nitrogen; $12.95, 50/Pk. All have a wide detection range. The Lab Mart®. J. & H. Berge, Inc. Serving Science since 1850. 1-800-684-1234. Highly recommended by the WebMasters.
- pH~Fix Indicators Sticks: H365580PH-FIX. Range 0.0 - 14. Graduation. $12.75; 100/Pk. The Lab Mart®. J. & H. Berge, Inc. Serving Science since 1850. 1-800-684-1234. Highly recommended by the WebMasters.
Tortora, Funke, and Case, writing in their text book, Microbiology Fifth Edition, 1995, by The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc. say:
Tests for Water Purity:
"Historically, most of our concern about water purity has been related to the transmission of disease. Therefore, tests have been developed to determine the safety of water; many of these tests are also applicable to foods.
"It is not practical, however, to look only for pathogens in water supplies. For one thing, if we were to find the pathogen causing typhoid or cholera in the water system, the discovery would already be too late to prevent an outbreak of the disease. Moreover, such pathogens would probably be present only in small numbers and might not be included in tested samples.
"The tests for water safety in use today are aimed instead at detecting particular indicator organisms. There are several criteria for an indicator organism.
- The most important criterion is that the organism be consistently present in human feces in substantial numbers so that its detection is a good indication that human wastes are entering the water.
- The indicator organism should also survive in the water at least as well as the pathogenic organisms would.
- The indicator organisms must also be detectable by simple test that can be carried out by people with relatively little training in microbiology.
"In the U.S. A., the usual indicator organisms are the coliform bacteria. Coliforms are defined as aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, gram-negative, non-endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria that ferment lactose to form gas within 48 hours of being placed in lactose broth at 35 degrees C.
"Because some coliforms are not solely enteric (intestinal) bacteria but are more commonly found in plant and soil samples, many standards for food and water specify the identification of fecal coliforms.
"The predominant fecal coliform is E. coli, which cnstitutes a large proportion of the human intestinal population. There are specialized tests to distinguish between fecal coliforms and nonfecal coliforms. Note that coliforms are not themselves pathogenic under normal conditions, although certain strains can cause diarrhea and opportunistic urinary tract infections."
"A more convenient method of detecting coliforms, specifically the coliform E. coli, makes use of media containing the two substates o-nitrophenyl-B-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) and 4-methylumbelliferyl-B-D-glucuronide (MUG). Coliforms produce the enzyme B-glucuronidase, which acts on ONPG and forms a yellow color, indicating their presence in the sample.
"E. coli is unique among coliforms in almost always producing the enzyme B-glucuronidase, which acts on MUG to form a fluorescent compound that glows blue when illuminated by long-wave ultraviolet light."
"These simple tests or variants of them [see How Clean is The Water?, above. This kit allows culture tests for coliform bacteria] can detect the presence or absence of coliforms or E. coli...."
How Clean is The Water? says in its test kit:
"Coliform bacteria are harmless bacteria which grow in human and animal intestines and therefore are found in their wastes. The presence of coliform bacteria is closely related to the presence of other very hardy bacteria and their presence is used to indicate the ability of other bacteria to survive in a sample of water.
"If there are a large number of coliform bacteria in the water, it suggests that other bacteria are likely to be present. If there are a very small number, it means that other bacteria are unlikely to be present in significant number. The Public Health Service requires that the coliform count (number of bacteria) in drinking water be less than one bacteria in a 100 milliter (ml) sample." The authors of Microbiology point out that "One coliform colony per 100 ml = satisfactory"; and "Four coliform colonies per 100 ml = unsatisfactory."
Note this....Tortora, Funke, and Case continue by writing:
"Coliforms have been very useful as indicator organisms in water sanitation, but they have limitations. One problem has been the growth of coliform bacteria in biofilms [see Well-Water] on the inner surfaces of water pipes. Their presence in tap water has led to a number of community orders to boil water even through these coliforms are not necessarily related to fecal contamination and there is no evidence that they have a significant effect on public health.
"A more serious problem is that some pathogens are even more resistant than coliforms to chemical disinfection--in their order of increasing resistance [underscoring by WebMasters] to chlorination, viruses and protozoan cysts.
"By using sophisticated methods of detecting viruses, it has been found that chemically disinfected water samples that are free of coliforms are often contaminated with enteric viruses.
"The cysts of G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium (protozoans) are so resistant to chlorination that eliminating them by this method is probably impractical; mechanical methods (we point this out in this document later), such as filtration are necessary."
Elsewhere, they write concerning Cryptosporidiosis, the disease caused by the protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum:
"Transmission to humans is largely via water systems contaminated by animal wastes, especially cattle. Thousands may be affected in such outbreaks. The cysts (actually oocysts), like those of G. lamblia, are resistant to chlorination and must be removed from water by filtration." Use Metronidazole (Flagyl) for amebas and giardia. See Medicine document on this Website.
The trophozoite (vegetative form; able to take in nutrients) and the non-vegetative form (cyst) of Giardia lamblia and that too of Cryptosoridium parvum are probably both killed by boiling water; especially that of Cryptosporidium. In 1995, June 16, Friday, The Houston Chronicle writes:
"The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Environmental Protection Agency issued a report saying boiling water for a minute is the surest way to eliminate the chance of contracting cryptosporidium, which can cause severe diarrhea, nausea and stomach cramps."
However, there is no medicine that kills the Cryptosporidium. If on chemotherapeutic drugs, one is generally taken off of them and given supportive treatment as healing takes place.
Also, malnourished persons should be given a nourishing diet. We suggest taking coconut oil and coconut cream, as the Thais do.
Coconut Oil :
In 1950 a Cornell University group investigated Thailand and their food habits. It appears that a protective factor in the Thai diet (and could be ours, too) that kills pathogenic bacteria in the intestines and also kills parasites, viruses, and yeast, is the use of coconut oil there, as concluded in The Journal of The Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation (619-574-7763), winter 1998.
In Thailand, its peasantry drinks raw river water; also that from canals, streams, and other unpurified water sources too---and they don't seem to get sick from waterborne illnesses. They don't even boil it in many cases; nor do they filter out the sediment. This is the same canals, rivers, streams, and so forth that their animals use for drinking and wallowing in. Their kids swim and play in it. The Nutrition Foundation's Journal (www.price-pottenger.org), Health & Healing Wisdom, Vol. 22, No. 4, p. 13, concludes, that coconut oil is the most protective factor in the Thai diet, since the oil contains nearly 50% of a 12-carbon saturated fat, lauric acid. The body converts this into mono-laurin, which effectively kills "parasites, yeast, viruses and pathogenic bacteria in the gut."
The Thais also practice fermenting meats and pork, which kills the earliest stages of trichinosis organism, larvae. Fermented milks, and other foods develop large amounts of healthy bacteria that help keep pathogenic organisms in check. This may be a major source of their health from waterborne diseases, competitive inhibition of pathogenic microorganism in their diet.
Scenario for Obtaining Clean Water:
- Draw the water. Approximately 1 gallon plus.
- If debris (shurbs, leaves, mud, etc) is present, filter into another container through a cloth or two.
- Aeration: The process by which raw water is brought into close contact with the air for removal of gasses from the water to the air, and placing oxygen into the water for oxidation of reduced substances such as iron, manganese, and sulfides. When you remove hydrogen sulfide you will improve taste and odor in ground and surface waters. Aeration (and stripping) removes Volatile Organic Chemicals (VOCs), Synthetic Organic Chemicals (SOCs), Pesticides, Trihalomethanes (THMs), and THM precursors from poor to excellent. Thus, you want to also employ coagulation (flocculation), sedimentation, and filtration in your home water purification process and finally, distillation followed with adsorption.
Aeration also encourages the growth of aerobic bacteria and other microorganisms that facilitate the
removal of dissolved organic matter to carbon dioxide and water. The resulting sludge is allowed to settle out, removed ; then, coagulate the raw water with alum. However, in the home water treatment system we give, we simply omit the primary sludge removal and proceed with adding alum; then sedimentation and filtration to remove the sludge, followed with distillation and activated charcoal filtration. We give the procedure as follows:
Method A--Spray Aeration:
Place the filtered water in a clean, never used for chemical spraying, stainless steel 1 - 2 gallon garden sprayer. Pump up and spray this water once or more with a 4 -6 foot spray upward at a large inclined angle into the sunny air, allowing it to fall into a clean, plastic wading pool. You have just aerated your water---as much as possible, without knowing Henry's Law and Mass Transfer, or having special equipment, nozzle sizes, and so forth. It is the best we can do under the harsh circumstances coming.
Method B--Incline Cascade Aeration:
This is the method the WebMasters call the Washboard effect of aeration. This method is simpler and easier for most women to use. You want a surface at an incline plane at 60 to 90 degrees. The surface must have a transversely corrugated face or surface, 1 inch in diameter, and a sinusoidal surface.
This is simply a ridge and trough that alternates from ridge to trough. The easiest way to build this is simply to get standard fiberglass corrugated, semicircular, 1 inch in diameter, and sinusoidal (alternate ridge-trough) section(s) for sun roofs. Get one 8' l x 26" w and one 5' l x 26" w. Cut it every 2' (24-in) down the length--use tin snip scissors. Turn it 90 degrees and nailed or glue the cut pieces to your incline, so there is a continuous Washboard Effect down the incline surface, taking care to assure that each cut section overlaps the preceeding section down the incline. You want it at least 8 - 16 ft long and 2 ft wide. We made ours 8 ft long and 2 ft wide. The research test board was 16 ft long by 2 ft wide.
Pour the gallon plus water slowly down the fiberglass ridge and trough incline. Collect in a large baking pan or wader pool. Repeat this several times.
Utilizing one the immediate above methods, you have vaporized volatile organic chemicals (VOC); removed carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from water, to the air; and added oxygen to the water for removal of iron and manganese, to be removed through coagulation (flocculation) and/or sedimentation, under home-made conditions; thus, removing a strain on your activated charcoal filter. You have also removed considerable odors, and possibly killed numerous micro-organisms. Under a municipal, professional system with adjusted pH, etc., even then, they do not get all of the VOCs.
Unless you have the time, money, and expertise to own and identify organic compounds in raw and finished waters by owning expensive nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry (spectrophotometer, an instrument that measures the degree of turbidity) instruments as well as gas-liquid chromatographic instruments too, then you do not know with certainty which contaminants are being removed by just one or two modalities from your water when you clarify.
Therefore, you should practice Aeration and Stripping, Coagulation (flocculation) Processes, Sedimentation, Filtration, Distillation, and Adsorption using Granular Activated Carbon, GAC. For none of these remove everything using them separately. By using a combination, one mode removes one or more things well; whereas, the other removes poorly, and vise-versa. The combination we have given here gives the best removal of contaminants that the average person can have access to. ----Source: Hamann, C.L., Jr., et al., Chapter 3 in Water Quality and Treatment, 4th ed., (Denver, CO: Am. Water Works Assoc., 1990).
Pre-Treatment: Coagulation (flocculation) is an excellent pretreatment for
activated carbon adsorption after aeration:
- Procedure For Coagulation (flocculation) Removal of Particulate Matter from Water:
- Apply 97.2 mg of Alum (aluminum Sulfate [Al2(SO4)3]), all at once, to the filtered, aerated 1 gallon plus of raw water (97.2 mg Alum, a small pinch, per 1.2 gal water).
- Stir rapidly.
- Allow to sit for 1 1/2 hours. A gelatinous material will form. If allowed to sit too long, re-stablization of naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) will form. This means the destablizing agent or coagulant, the precipitated Aluminum bound to the NOMs, will start letting go and much NOMs will go back into solution with the water.
This procedure, coagulation (flocculation), is trapping various types of micro-organisms (bacteria, viruses, algae), organic matter, hydrous aluminum oxide, and "inorganic particles as clay, sand, or carbon, and such organics as color colloids, wastewater particulates...." Sources: Chemistry of Water Treatment, 2nd. Edition; Samuel D. Faust, Osman M. Aly; ©1999 by Lewis Publishers; Cost: $90.00. The Home Water Supply; Stu Campbell; Storey Communications, Inc. 1983.
Pour through a cloth filter. Rinse the cloth in unpurified water with a little liquid bleach for next use. Hang in sunlight to dry. You may have to scrape off the sludge into your sewer system, or dispose in a pit and cover. Or, filter through extra large coffee filters and discard properly. Get Alum at your local hardware store in the garden department.
"Many authors stress the significance and importance of pretreatment---especially chemical coagulation (flocculation)---for filtration processes. For example, it was concluded that 'Chemical pretreatment prior to filtration is more critical to success than the physical facilities at the plant.'" ---Chemistry of Water Treatment.
Pretreatment increases (1) the life of the filter bed substrance, in this case Activated Carbon. (2) Higher-molecular weight substances (macromolecules) are adsorbed to a lesser degree than low-molecular-weight species onto activated carbon; thus, coagulation (flocculation) removes the macromolecules giving you a more purified water, and, (3) organic materials are removed by coagulation at the best pH range of 5 to 6. With such a pH, the adsorption using Granulated Activated Carbon of naturally occurring organic matter, NOMs, is more efficiently removed for your final water. Therefore, you may want to add a little vinegar to the raw filtered water prior to coagulation (flocculation) with the alum.
- Treat with iodine, or chlorine (see above as to amount). Chlorine may be used if that is all you have. If the water is heavily polluted, use more iodine or chlorine. The sedimentation with Alum (coagulation) will have done much to remove organic matter, bacteria, and, especially, organic chemicals. The prior aeration will have facilitated this procedure. If you use chlorine at this stage, then aerate again to remove volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), however, because you have removed most precursors that the chlorine could react with to form by-products through the coagulation stage, you should have very little by-product formation from your disinfection process. You could, thus, omit the aeration stage again if your technique was not sloppy.
- Stir. Wait 20 or 30 minutes. We play it safe and wait 30 minutes.
- If time permits, allow, if any sediment is left, to settle to the bottom of the pail; then,
- Pour into your distillation unit's boiling chamber, only the clear layer of water---not the sediment layer, if any has been left.
- Filter the distilled water through activated charcoal filter unit; or, one you devise.
You have made, as economically as possible, a simple, home-made, "municipal" water-treatment plant. Clean, pure water is going to become a very severe problem. Prepare now.
Making Your Own Activated Carbon Filter Unit.
Get The Following:
- Wash & Clean a # 10 size can, or a water tight plastic bucket, or a 5 gal container.
- Marineland Bonded Filter Pad (from local pet and aquarium shop); or two Cheese Cloth, 100% cotton -- approximately 126" x 36" packages; or several kitchen cup towels --- we prefer the filter pads; but have the others too.
- 3 - 6 pounds of Activated Charcoal or more (from local pet and aquarium shop).
Be sure and cut filter pad or cloth to edges of pail. Allow the Activated Charcoal to go all the way to the sides of the pail. This filtering device is to be used with distilled water only, using the E Still. Pour the distilled water into the filtration device and collect. The water conditions, as you have read, are getting so bad, and will increase, when things go down, such that you do not want to chance your water to anything less.
- Drill or hammer (with nail) holes into the bottom of the pail.
- Put one layer thickness of filter pad on bottom of pail
- Place two to three inches (we prefer 4 - 5) of Activated Charcoal on this layer; then,
- Lay another layer of filter pad on top of the Activated Charcoal.
Use the above filtering device for about 30 to 50 gallons of water; then just remove everything and rinse the charcoal well, and boil for 5 to 10 minutes to reactivate the carbon. Wash other items in hot sudsy, chlorine or iodine water; rinse well.
However, be advised that activated charcoal filters are not totally effective in removing chemical pollution from water, but many health authorities, at state and local levels, contend activated charcoal filters are one of the best solutions available.
Activated charcoal does, however, filter out chemicals that are not dissolved very well in the water, another reason you want a distillation unit. It leaves those chemicals behind since they are not caught up in the vaporization. But for those who do not get a distillation unit, then know, that poorly dissolved chemicals in the water will cling to the surface, or adsorb to the activated carbon (charcoal). Just one ounce of activated carbon will adsorb on its surface area an incredible square mile of chemicals dissolved and not dissolved so very well in the water.
So, what's the problem? It is simply this: when the activated charcoal can not adsorb or collect any more pollutants on its surface, they are no longer removed, and the toxins filter over into your water. This is when you replace the filter or boil it out. But, how do you know this---the point is you don't. Rough estimates are good, per adsorbed area per gallon of water; but, here's the rub: what if more pollutants are coming over the tap than usual; the water from a clarified mountain stream is carrying more pollutants than usual---then, you filter will clog faster. And you won't know it any faster either.
You have to test your filtered water with a home test kit! ....and this must be done regularly, something infrequently done, and more often than not, FORGOTTEN. If it's tap water and it's supposed to be chlorinated, and you test it and chlorine tests positive; that is, chlorine shows to be in the water, then it's time to change out your activated charcoal filter or boil or steam it out for 5 minutes. Then, test again. This will also tell you how well your boiling method is working.
If you test the Activated Carbon Unit, and find that boiling for 5 minutes or more did not reactivate the unit; then, the exhausted carbon should be replaced by virgin carbon (GAC).
If you are using untreated water for any length of time with your activated carbon filter and you have not been chlorinating it, then chlorinate it---especially if you are using the E Still; then, filter it through your activated charcoal (carbon) bearing unit. Test the filtrate for chlorine. If it tests positive, then you know it is time to change or boil out your activated carbon filter.
Note: With the E Still or any other distillation unit, many will not see the need to be extra cautious and treat the water with disinfectants first, prior to distilling. You need to do so for this simple test. Again, treat with chlorine; then test the distilled or filtrated water for chlorine content. If chlorine is present in a small amount, then you need to change out your filter as given in this discourse.
Remember! An activated charcoal filter may still be removing taste, odor, as well as turbidity (cloudy) from your treated water, but it may no longer be removing chemical pollutants. The chlorine test should be a fairly good indicator; better yet, get the above mentioned water chemical test kits given above and feel more confortable.
Odors and Tastes:
The earth-musty smell in water supplies, as well as your stored water, can be improved by pouring from one container to another several times; or, run it through an activated carbon filter. The causative agents for this odor are Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB). They are strongly adsorbed to the activated carbon (charcoal). The odors are caused by the filamentous bacteria, Actinomycetes and algae, especially the blue-green algae (the cyanobacteria) and flagellates.
In addition to the tastes and odor problems of actinomycetes and algae, odors are produced by these biological sources as well as protozoans, fungi, and water borne microbiota. Taste and odors range from hay-like, manure-like, geranium-like, woody, earthy, and musty. The organoleptic (color, turbidity, and odor sensations) qualities of potable water can be improved through aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, adsorption and oxidation (use of chlorine) measures.
Additionally, The Chemistry of Water Treatment, 2nd. edition, Samuel D. Faust, Osman M. Aly; ©1999 by Lewis Publishers; Cost: $90.00; says, "The principal volatile odorous compound in many groundwaters is hydrogen sulfide gas, which imparts a characteristic rotten egg smell." Use the above measures to remove odors and improve taste. We suggest those modalities followed by distillation with activated carbon (charcoal).
Strong psycho-dynamic emotions, positive and negative, can be elicited by odors and tastes. You want good, clean potable (drinkable) water.
If You Miss Out on Getting an E Still:
If you don't have a distillation unit, add for the first layer, on the drilled bottom of the pail, pebbles, 3 -4 inches thick. Place layer of cloth, on top of this to the edges of the container, and then place 3 -4 inches activated charcoal on top of that. Place another cloth to the edges of the container; following on top of the cloth, purified sand, crumbled up clay, or Fuller's Earth, 4 -5 inches thick. Lay another cloth on top of this and you should be ready for filtering water. Always purify raw water (chlorine/iodine--see above) before pouring the water through the Filtration Unit. If there is a nuclear
attack, then use the iodine after filtering, if you have not gotten Potassium Iodide tablets for such an occurrence. Always remove as much debris as possible first. Then, if time permits, let as much turbidity settle to the bottom overnight, and then use only the clearer water for treating chemically and filtering. Use the Aeration and Coagulation (flocculation) with Alum procedure given above.
In the natural environment, few hydrologists disagree , that water must pass through 10 feet of earth or more before it can be considered clarified (cleared of turbidity) and "completely filtered."
These two things are important for pure water. Yet, we attempt to be imitators of natural filtration. The best filtration is when water is not forced through the filter, and thus, exceeds the filter's ability to remove harmful substances.
Never hurry water through your filtering devices because purity may be sacrificed. The best filtered water is that at which water takes its time winding, curving, and taking its time through the strata---whether it be man-made or nature-made.
Note-2 : Disinfection (water made free of living things, microbes and viruses). Conditioned water is water that is treated to remove minerals, chemicals, and things not alive. Clarified water is made free of suspended matter.
When using chlorine, iodine, silver, ultraviolet light, or ozonization, remove turbidity (soil particles carried or suspended in water---one speck of soil can carry millions of microorganisms).
Then, decrease the pH by adding vinegar to the water to be purified, and if possible---a thing that may be impossible, if fuel is in short shrift, and/or you live in the north---increase the temperature of the water to be treated. The reasons: when you decrease the pH (making the solution more acid), and increase the temperature----chlorine, iodine, etc. gives much better disinfection. Add disinfectants for 20 - 30 minutes. Pour through filtering unit of clay, sand (get 50 lb sack "filter sand" in the swimming pool supply section at Home Depot), activated charcoal, pebbles, etc. Always remember to test your filter.
Note-3 : Chlorination Language
Note-4 : Aluminum
- Chlorine Demand: When Chlorine combines with organic matter, that amount of chlorine is used up---it will not disinfect. It does form substances called trihalomethanes with the link-up to organic matter. They increase cancer risk.
- Combined Chlorine Residual: This is the amount of free chlorine that is left over not bound with organic matter, but combines with any nitrogen presend in the water as in surface water or ponds; also, any dead, decomposing body in the water giving off ammonia nitrogen to the water, is bound with the chlorine left over from the Chlorine Demand. This, then, is called Combined Chlorine Residual and is not very effective in disinfecting, according to The Home Water Supply; but The Chemistry of Water Treatment says chloramines are formed and they do a creditable job of disinfecting. Iodine does not react with ammonia in the water.
- Chlorine Residual: This is what you are after; free chlorine. It is this that is left over, if enough was used, from Chlorine Demand, and Combined Chlorine Residual, that has the killing power for germs, etc., in treating your water.
- Chlorine is not effective when its pH reaches 8 or more; iodine goes to pH 10 before it is no longer effective in killing micro-organisms.
The concern for aluminum residuals in your treated water occuring naturally in raw source waters, or by way of coagulation with Alum for turbidity may be of interest to individuals reading this page. The Chemistry of Water Treatment says:
"Questions have been asked about the human health implications of elevated levels of aluminum in drinking water that may affect persons with Alzheimer's disease and dialysis patients. However, no conclusions have been reached, to date, about this health concern."
We feel, however, there may be some association with aluminum and one's health. Thus, from our studies, it appears that distillation may be very effective in this contaminant removal, then followed by filtration with granular activated carbon (GAC). Yet, the data concerning aluminum removal by GAC is either not applicable or insufficient at this time.
Cleaning Your Boiling Distillation Tank:
After each use, the distillation boiler tank will, if a small amount of water is not left in the tank, develop heavy "boiler scale." This will be hard to remove, as well as the residues left behind. It will be hard to clean without scouring, scraping, or scrubbing. This build-up can be a real problem to clean. Even with some water left in the tank, which reduces some of the scale, you will still have an onerous cleaning job. You don't need this, nor want this at a time when you are thinking about surviving.
Therefore, get plenty of regular household vinegar using water with it. Simply mix the two, and your cleaning will be relatively easy. "Any vinegar type product will work. "If you bought our book, Chemical/Biological WarFare....How You Can Survive, you know the importance of vinegar. Also get at the same time you buy vinegar, an assortment of bottle cleaning brushes to clean the distillation spout. Any chlorides not throughly cleansed from the distillation unit can cause corrosion.
The problem on just using Filtration Systems is that as the water passes through the activated carbon, silver (better units---and more costly---employ silver to kill over 650 microorganisms), and or ceremic, they may not be effective in reducing contaminants like copper, lead, nitrates, parasites, sodium, sulfates, arsenic, and violatile organic compounds. Also, as they are used--the cheaper ones--they become a breeding ground for bacteria when organic matter decomposes (rots) which stays in the filter.
These types of inexpensive systems do not, according to our information, remove radioactive contaminants, whereas, distillation does, such as the E Still. Also, a good distillation system removes water from the contaminating substances as opposed to removing contaminants from the water.
Activated charcoal filters act like a magnet to pull most chemicals, many organic compounds, and heavy metals, as well as chlorine and flourine from the water. Distillation does more. Combined with a carbon filter, you receive the best of both worlds. If you have an inexpensive water filtration unit that does not have iodine and/or silver in the filter, but just carbon, then you need to kill the bacteria that is removed from the water you are treating and left in your filter that will make you sick.
For this problem, we suggest a few drops of iodine, see above (We like the iodine from iodine crystals). But, if you have distilled your water, that should eliminate the need for iodine. Also, by using just the filtration units, then the filters lose effectiveness with use. Many are equipped with an indicator as when to change the filtering unit. We don't feel confortable with this, though it is a rough measure to have on hand. As usage occurs, if you don't have an indicator to its life extent, then more and more contaminants are passed through to your "filtered" water and you are less aware of it. This occurs when the capacity for adsorption has been reached.
Nevertheless, you will still need to boil the activated charcoal filter to remove adsorbed particles, and, kill any bacteria on them, if you are just using a water filtration pitcher unit, even though the tap water is not suspicious. The carbon rods eventually serve as a breeding ground, as given earlier, for bacterial
If The Electricity Stays Up .... Don't Count on It...
We have also found, if the electricity stays up, a unit called the Waterwise® Model 9000 counter-top distiller. Aside, "I would still get the E Still and the Brita® and/or Pur® water filtration units just in case." But, this unit, needing electricity, combines distilling and a "coconut shell carbon filter, which adsorbs volatile organic compounds." This unit is stainless steel and does have an activated carbon post filter. It also has a venting system (see above): "Low boiling light gases are discharged through the gaseous vent." If the electricity is intermittent, run this thing night and day during the on sessions and store the water. For cost and more information, call 1-800-211-8562; Monday-Friday, 8 a.m. to 8 p.m., ET ; ask for Code #U31161.
Another, more sofisticated unit, we think better than the Waterwise unit is the Rain Crystal Water Still. This, if you can afford it, is probably the top of the line and doesn't need a carbon filter, though we advise to use one. They write:
"Features: Creates up to 8 gallons of 1.8 megohms/cm water a day. Vented design purges volatile organics instead of concentrating them in the distillate, (i.e: 99% removal of 40 ppb chloroform). The two stage system removes biological, mineral and chemical contaminants producing virus and pyrogen free water. Made of glass, eliminating the contaminations caused by stainless steel apparatus.
- "Removes volatile organic compounds automatically.
- Produces laboratory grade distilled water.
- Economical, costs less than other water stills.
- Automatic, hooks to a faucet and runs unattended.
- 1 year warranty."
"Unit has a burnout switch which shuts the unit down if the water pressure is lost. The boiler water level is maintained by an overflow tube. Distiller is mounted in an acrylic case and can be wall mounted to save space. Comes with a 'quick connect' faucet adapter, mounting brackets, and tubing. 120 VAC."--- Order from: The Lab Mart®. J. & H. Berge, Inc. Serving Science since 1850. 1-800-684-1234. Cat. No. H320550. Cost: $750.00
And, since you probably don't count on the electricity staying up, then we have found a very excellent, out of the ordinary, gravity water filtration unit that appears to do similar to a distillation unit....hmmmmm. It is called the High Capacity Water Filter and sells for US$279 plus $15.50 shipping within the 48 states (otherwise US$25).
Reading about it is very impressive and we are tempted to get one because there will be a fuel shortage. One feature we definitely like is that the filters are reusable. The literature says that after 8,000 gallons of chlorine-treated water, boil them in water (filtered) for 5 minutes. The filter units are "silver-impregnated to prevent bacterial growth in the unit itself ( a real danger in the mass-marketed store water filters!)." However, this should be no problem with regular store bought units if the filters contain iodine in some form or other (crystals) in them. The units make 30 gallons per day without electricity and uses 9.5 quarts per filling, the literature says. Call 1-800-528-0559.
Considerations For Those With Well-Water:
For the past several years, Helicobacter pylori has been indicated in a whole series of gastrointestinal trouble from ulcers, inflammation of the stomach, and even cancer. A little known fact is that half of all persons have H. pylori that automatically invades and lives in their intestinal tract. Obviously, these people are more prone to the disease it brings about.
Recent evidence from Scotland now points to still another foci or central point of activity to infect us. It's our water system! That's right, even with chlorination, it has now been shown by researchers, that live H. pylori live in the biofilm in our water pipes and the chlorine gets used up in destroying the top layer of the bacteria in the pipes, but does not touch the germs living in the deeper biofilm.
It is these deeper layers that don't get the chlorine treatment and when the water is moved through the pipes in our homes and elsewhere, the deeper clumps in the biofilm, small or large, get washed into our drinking water at the faucet.
The same process has now surfaced for well-water that has not been chlorinated and may be even worse! Many are digging wells, feeling secure in their efforts, while they are being undermined by pollution and H. pylori and don't even know it, until it is too late. If you're suffering from gastrointestinal problems or not .... Get the distillation unit.
Gasoline and other associated chemicals in your well-water.
"Gasoline is spilled regularly, and seems to find its way into a nearby water source quickly." Domestic Water Treatment by Jay H. Lehr, Gass; Pettyjohn; DeMarre. NY, 1980.
In The Home Water Supply by Stu Campbell, 1983, a Garden Way Publishing Book, he points out that one person started pumping gasoline from his deep well. Getting all that free gasoline was fine, but he really wanted and needed "water."
Campbell further points out the following:
"Any well, in fact, penetrates the protective seal of a groundwater source, and may offer a route for surface water to seep, unfiltered, into the earth.
"Too little effort is made to keep casings and spring boxes impervious to contaminating water from outside.
"Six hundred previously good wells around New York City have been closed in recent years because they've become hopelessly polluted. Where we tend to cluster, we tend to foul our water supply."
Water Testing....and others have said similar over the years.
The Ruff Times, August 9, 1999, issue, enclosed a document that says:
"Think testing is your answer? Guess again. Because even if you go to the trouble of having your water tested, the most you can hope for is temporary peace of mind.
"Whether you're dealing with private well water or city water, the quality can change dramatically over even short periods of time. And at an average cost of $89.00 each, testing is not only very expensive...it does absolutely nothing to solve your problem."
The problem intensifies: The Houston Chronicle, Tuesday, July 27, 1999, points out in banner bold type: Panel to urge reduced use of MTBE. Policy reversed on gasoline additive.
The content of the article is about the gasoline additive, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), now finding its way into water supplies in "all or part of Texas, California, Connecticut, Deleware, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Virginia and Wisconsin." Arizona's water supplies also claim the additive.
This has made the local and national radio and TV news for several days at that time. Even Pat Robersion of The 700 Club TV program has been talking about this. In the early Church, and more recently, God spoke to His Saints and said, "Nature will turn against you."
"Federal research shows that the compound causes tumors in rats and may do so in humans. A University of California study showed that the additive has affected at least 10,000 ground water sites throughout California," the newspaper article said.
And we would not be surprised that most well water and tap water tested, does not include total THAs, pesticides, herbicides, and the latest chemical additives' spills that polute ground water (aquifers, wells, etc.). We hope water testing labs not only test for microbia; but, have the expensive nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry instruments, as well as gas-liquid chromatographic instruments and use them all in the water testing procedures.
"The panel," the Chronicle continues, "found that MTBE molecules travel unusually fast through soil and into ground water once gasoline gets into the environment." In other words, gasoline is spilled everywhere; not only does it pollute---when spilled, but the report specifically designates MTBE is carried into the ground water supply. And you can be certain, gasoline is carrying it there and showing up too in many places, though the report did not mention this.
The levels of MTBE found were in trace amounts of "5 to 10 percent of the drinking water in areas where reformulated gasoline is sold. While those levels themselves pose no health concerns, the panel felt they were a strong enough signal that widespread use of MTBE could pose a future threat to the drinking water supply." Folks, you just don't want any amount of this crap in your water. You want pure, clean, drinking water.
Reformulated gasoline is gasoline that has this additive, MTBE, at one time highly touted to reduce air pollution from automotive vehicles, and required by the Environmental Protection Agency in most or all 16 states where used. We've achieved gains in clean air, but at what price to our ground water supply?
The European Problem
Europe not only has our problem, but, still another. They not only have to worry about polluted clouds, ground water, and waste with chemical pesticides that mimic estrogen, leading to an increase in breast cancer, among other health problems listed above; but, researchers have discovered drugs, now in the earth's rivers, streams, and oceans.
In fact, German scientists, specificially, have discovered the drug, clofibrate in the North Sea area. Evidently, the Europeans are taking this cholesterol-lowering drug en masse, such that it is excreted in their urine and feces. It goes into the sewage systems and apparently is contaminating that part of the world's ocean. It has not yet been determined what effects this has on the aquatic life in the ocean there.
Many in America are taking confidence in their wells, springs, and aquifers
that their water is going to always be pure. Sorry folks, that ain't the case any more! You've read the facts and we suggest you invest in an E Still. Also, your WebMasters strongly suggest Iodine crystals.
Chlorine is fine for Chemical/Biological WarFare; iodine is dandier for water purification. The only problem---it leaves an iodine taste. But this is easily solved by getting "Iodine Purification Neutralizing Tablets. If you think that you are one of those that will find the taste of iodine in your drinking water objectional, then order the tablets from NITRO-PAK (1-888-866-4876). These are also excellent for water treated with filters using iodine.
Chlorine treated water offers no protection against pesticides, herbicides; but does for some to many viruses, depending upon the chlorination (simple to Superchlorination). It does offer protection against bacteria. Nor does chlorine protect against volatile (evaporated) organic chemical compounds. Only a still fitted with a carbon filter will do that; or, you can just distill the water, then filter through a Pur® water filtration pitcher, found at most pharmacies, supermarkets, etc. The Brita® works fine also.
Iodine kills bacteria and viruses; but does not remove volitile chemical compounds found in the water. Some filters remove non-bacterial contaminants, such as lead, copper, nitrates, parasites, sulfates, some sodium, and so forth. Distilling does, but, recall, does not remove the organic dissolved pesticides from your water; use an activated carbon filter after you have distilled the water from whatever source.
However, be advised: If you are using only a water filtration pitcher, you must treat the water with chlorine, or Iodine, if it is possibly contaminated, whether from your kitchen tap, well, or the ditch out front. Your best bet is distillation; then filtration. Remember, the inexpensive store bought units are designed to be used with clean water only. If the water is suspect----then treat first with chlorine or iodine; wait 20 - 30 minutes, then pour through your inexpensive water filtration pitcher.
The Problem With Chlorine
The problem with chlorine is that it reacts with precursors to form trihalomethanes (THMs), and numerous other by-products from chlorine disinfection. The THMs, as the pesticides, have been directly linked to increased cancer risk and rates (See Epidemilogy 99; 10:23-237). Heavy chlorination (Superchlorination), also, according to an EPA study released in December 1980, links cancer risk to the colon, bladder, and intestines. We now have ground water pollution, cloud pollution, well water, and aquifers as well.
This is why we recommend using activated carbon (charcoal) prior to your final drinking water. It removes chlorine....fluorides too, among other things mentioned earlier. In the June issue of Life Extension, 1999, page 11/12, says:
"American [sic] is experiencing a cancer epidemic that coincides with the introduction of billions of tons of chemicals---including chlorine-based chemicals that mimic estrogen----into the environment. Chlorine-based chemicals are ingredients in plastic wrap and baby toys, DDT and 'Agent Orange.'
"Most people believe that because DDT has been banned (in America), it has disappeared. It has not. Millions of tons of it are served up on America's dinner plates every year in beef and produce from South America, Mexico and other countries where the pesticide is still legal.
"Chlorine-based chemicals have been implicated in the dramatic rise of breast and prostate cancer in the U.S. African-Americans are particularly hard-hit by prostate cancer, with an astounding 3% increase between 1992 and 1995. Prostate cancer is striking at an earlier age. In 1992, the proportion of men under age 60 who contracted prostate cancer was 21.3%. Now it's 29.8%.
"Dioxin and other chlorine products [get that...dioxin is a chlorine product] have been implicated in the increase of prostate and breast cancer because they have the ability to mimic estrogen." --- Source: Life Extension Foundation; For Subscription: 1-800-544-4440; $75.00/yr.
Many people have a water filtration pitcher or an attachment at their kitchen sinks to remove chlorine, but do not know that when taking a long, hot shower, their lungs are absorbing chlorine in the hot, steamy vapor. They also are breathing in other additives that have become vaporized in the water. According to William Campbell Douglass, MD, Editor-in-Chief, Second Opinion:
"During just one 10-minute shower, you can inhale MORE toxic chemicals than if you drank 2 liters of water. Bleeeecccch!"
Also, he writes, "....chlorinated water strips your body of valuable moisture. If your skin or hair feels dry and worn out, chances are it's your treated water at work." He advertises the Hydro Spray. The shower head removes 99.7%, he says, of the chlorine from our water and "eliminates the risk associated with breathing in chemical vapors." Simply unscrew your existing shower head and screw this one in. For more information on ordering this remarkable attachment, call 1-800-728-2288; Second Opinion; cost: $49.95 plus $6.50 s/h.
If you order quickly, he will send you a test kit to prove that the chlorine is removed after installing the unit. Probably, similar to the simple test kit for testing before; then after filtration, for chlorine, mentioned above.
Chlorine reacts with numerous substances to form by-products. We don't know what they all do, but many form carcinogenic products. A host of other by-products are formed that your WebMasters don't what they all do, ----But, they can't be good for you and hydrologists at municipal water plants try to reduce them to low levels or none at all, per the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) and the American Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies (AMWA) recommendations.
Two Ways To Control Chlorine By-Products
- Don't use chlorine; or,
- Reduce or remove the precursors for chlorine by-product formation.
Since (a) is not the most practical, and chlorine is a very good disinfectant, inexpensive, and used practically world-wide, the second option is the one generally applied.
When chlorine is used for disinfection processes, numerous organic compounds or by-products are produced:
- Chloropicrin (trichloronitromethane)
- Chloral hydrate (knock-out drops)
- Cyanogen chloride
- Monochloroacetic acid
- Dichloroacetic acid
- Trichloroacetic acid
- Monobromoacetic acid
- Dibromoacetic acid
- Formaldehyde (embalming fluid/preservative)
The main sources of precursors for chlorine to react with appear to be from natural ones; they are not the only ones, however. They are:
- Naturally occurring organic matter yielding the humic and fulvic acid materials which are naturally occurring organic color molecules. They react with chlorine to give dichloro- and trichloroacetic acids.
- Other substances, such as ammonia (NH3) from natural background organic material. This, however, can go to form monochloramines and dichloramines, a good disinfectant; yet, adding chlorine to your finished waters.
- Algae (chlorination with green, blue-green, and diatom algae produced chloroform, CHCL3).
- The amino acids of aspartic acid, tyrosine, and tryptophan---all naturally occurring in varous microorganisms and natural organic matter. These amino acids form chloroform, dichloroacetonile, and chloral hydrate by-products of chlorination.
- Rivers, lakes, and drainage waters from agricultural irrigations and fertilizing as well as homeowners using similar treatments for home gardening and weed killing.
From the above, you can see that after distillation you can add chlorine and aerate as given earlier, or if you were careful and did not use sloppy technique under the first aeration and coagulation, then you can add the chlorine, wait 30 minutes, and distill. Because you have removed most precursors that the chlorine could react with to form by-products, you should have very little by-product formation from your disinfection process. Any chlorine residual should be removed by the Granular Activated Carbon (GAC).
Things To Get
- A water distillation unit that works without electricity, such as the E Still.
- Water Filtration Pitcher(s) with extra carbon rods (aka carbon post-filter).
- Plastic or stainless steel screen for home-made filters.
- Alum (Aluminum Sulfate [Al2(SO4)3])); as a coagulant for organic matter in purifying water in the Sedimentation stage.
- Wading Pool
- Stainless Steel Garden Sprayer, 1 - 2 gallon.
- Coffee Filters (for use with kitchen sieve, etc. Lay filter in sieve; place 3" Activated Carbon; filter distilled water through; or, use water filtration pitcher).
- Stainless Steel or plastic bucket with holes drilled in the bottom.
- Marineland Bonded Filter Pad (from local pet and aquarium shop); or two Cheese Cloth, 100% cotton -- approximately 126" x 36" packages.
- Purified sand (get 50 lb sack "filter sand" in the swimming pool supply section at Home Depot) and/or clay. To purify; bake in the oven, while you can, to 350 - 400 degrees F, for 4 - 5 hours. Or, you can place the sand in a clean sock(s) and boil for 20 - 30 minutes. Clay will come apart.
- Pebbles. Get 4 - 5 lbs or more. Use according to previous instructions. Purify by boiling in water for 20 - 30 minutes.
- Activated Carbon. We got ours from a local pet and aquarium supply shop. Have them get (at least two units, 7 1/2 lbs):
Net Wt: 60 oz. (3.75 pounds/1698grams)
Aquarium Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
There are some books out there, and various magazines---I just read one---that tell you that you can get your Charcoal from your camp fire or by burning wood. By now, you know this is in error.
Worse, the authors contend that you can take the ashes of the camp fire and pour your clarified water through there for final cleansing and detoxification; then it is potable, that is to say, d-r-i-n-k-a-b-l-e.
Yet, under soap making in the book(s) or quarterly magazine, they say to take wood ashes and/or the small charcoal pieces from your fire and pour water through it to get caustic soda and caustic Potash, respectively, "Lye," sodium Hydroxide and potassium hydroxide! ---so necessary to mix with fat for saponification (soap-making) to occur.
The two ideas are incongruous. If you follow that advice, you are going to burn out your voice box, throat, mucus membranes, and stomach before you die. Oh .... you might make a little soap in the process and shaving soap too, from your own fat, just before your demise.
The WebMaster's Choice: Volcano Cook Stove Unit
Heat Source. We recommend the Volcano Cook Stove. You can cook several meals at the same time, as you distill water with the E Still! --- saving on fuel, a thing that will be in short supply in many, if not all areas.
One of your WebMasters, an award-winning French chef, has thought and practiced on the volcano for sometime now. He has made some discoveries, one of which you have been made aware of, cooking and distilling, at the same time. There are accessories you can get with the unit, such that it best serves the individual under harsh conditions.
The chef is making more discoveries, as he works with it, and as such, if you get the Volcano Unit. You can do the same. It has all that you need to cook and distill with, using the least number of charcoal briquettes. As it stands, some to most of the literature out there on the volcano implies great fuel efficiency, we have not found that to be quite as great as the advertising implies; however it is far more efficient and uses less briquettes than an ordinary charcoal grill.
The Volcano Unit is far more efficient than propane or kerosene outdoor cookers, in terms of baking. And will use chunks of wood in a pinch!
But! ---as a French chef, he contends there are certain things any basic cook can learn that will increase the efficiency and improve the quality of one's cooking.
You can store far more charcoal briquettes, compactly, and safely, than propane or kerosene. Used correctly, with practice you can learn quickly that 300 lbs of the briquettes can last for nearly a year for cooking for a family of five (5). 180 lbs. for a family of two.
To order the complete WebMaster's Volcano Unit, Google Volcano Cook Stove
Cost was $397.30 in the 46 contigious United States. Cost included shipping and handling. They will ship to Hawaii and Alaska for additional shipping and handling charges. Price does change according to shipping rates and availability of raw materials.
Unit includes: Large Volcano cook stove and dutch oven (special kind); wind guards, bag, trivets, grills, handle, seasoning, and cook book. This too, may change according to supply and demand and shipping charges.
Lodge brand Camp Stove(s). We highly recommend this if you don't get the Volcano--better to get it and the Lodges. The stoves are the old cast iron pots, but differs from the indoor cast iron Dutch Oven in that it has a flanged lid for placing coals (top heat) and three legs for standing above coals for bottom heat.
We suggest the following for a family of 2 - 5: 1 - 10-in. diameter (4 qt) Outdoor Dutch Oven with Flanged lid a Integral legs; 1 - 12-in. diameter (6 qt) (4-in. deep) Outdoor Dutch Oven with Flanged Lid and Integral Legs; and 1 - 12-in diameter (8 qt) Outdoor deep (5-in.) Dutch Oven with Flanged Lid and Integral Legs.
You will be able to do all the cooking, baking,
and desert making you want. Also get 1 to 3 Lid Lifters. Check with your local hardware outlet for these items.
If just two people in your family, you can get by nicely with the 10-in. camp stove and a Lid Lifter, but you are limited. Soon, you probably will have extreme difficulty in securing the necessary items because there will be a raw product shortage in making them; or, difficulties in transportation from destination to you. When you get them, start cooking on them immediately in your backyard, or at your "hideaway" when things go south! Once seasoned (sweetened, aka blackened), you conserve water. Simply wipe out after use. Use Armour Lard to season.
Store plenty of charcoal briquettes. Figure 300 lbs for a family of 3 -5 for about 1 year, allow extra for practice. It stores compactly. Remember! You want alternate sources of heat and cooking. When things go south, it is going to get nasty. You may "lose" the one thing you counted on most---Get alternate sources of fuel, NOW. Also, get a cookbook: Let's Cook Dutch by Robert L. Ririe; Horizon Publishers: 1-800-453-0812; Cost: $8.98.
Coconut Oil. See: "The Unrecognized Grim Reaper, Coming Soon ... It
Will Happen To You, Unless You Are Prepared," at "Menu" for in depth reasons.
Swimming Pool cover: Tarp or Water-Proof Canvas, if you own a swimming pool. Most water is lost from bodies of water through evaporation; even in enclosed containers if not hermetically sealed. The tarp will slow down evaporation considerably, however, not stop it.
Tips For Conserving Water
Used to Control Microbial Growth
Mechanism of Action
|1. Moist heat
|a. Boiling or flowing steam
||Kills vegetative bacterial and fungal pathogens and many viruses within 10 minutes; less effective on endospores
||Dishes, basins, pitchers, various equipment.
||Very effective method of sterilization; at about 15 psi of pressue (121degrees C), all vegetative cells and their endospores are killed in about 15 minutes.
||Microbiological media, solutions, linens, utensils, dressings, equipment, and other items that can withstand temperature and pressure.
|c.[You can also
use a pressure cooker]
||Very effective method of sterilization; at about 15 psi of pressue (249.8 degrees F), all vegetative cells and their endospores are killed in about one hour.
||Any contaminated material. This is effective if a Biological WarFare attack occurs and Bacillus Anthracis * (Anthrax) is involved.
||Heat treatment for milk (72 degrees C for about 15 secnds) that kills all pathogens and some nonpathogens.
||Milk, cream, and certain alcoholic beverages (beer and wine).
|3. Dry heat
|Burning contaminants to ashes
||Very effective method of sterilization.
||Burning to ashes
||Very effective method of sterilization.
||Paper cups, contaminated dressings, animal carcasses (anthrax, etc.), bags, and wipes.
|c. Hot-air sterilization
||Very effective method of sterilization, but requires temperature of 170 degrees C for about 2 hours.
||Empty glassware, instruments, needles, and glass syringes.
|Separation of bacteria from suspending liquid
||Passage of a liquid or gas through a screenlike material that traps microbes; most filters in use consist of cellulose acetate or nitrocellulose.
||Useful for sterilizing liquids (toxins, enzymes, vaccines) that are destroyed by heat.
||Decreased chemical reactions and possible changes in proteins
||Has a bacteriostatic effect.
||Food, drug, and culture preservation
|2. Deep- freezing
||Decreased chemical reactions and possible changes in proteins
||An effective method for preserving microbial cultures, in which cultures are quick-frozen between -50 degrees and -95 degrees C.
||Food, drug, and culture preservation.
|Decreased chemical reactions and possible changes in proteins
||Most effective method for long-term preservation of microbial cultures; water removed by high vaccum at low temperature [Freeze Drying].
||Food, drug, and culture preservation.
|Disruption of metabolism
||Involves removing water from microbes; primarily bacteriostatic.
|Disruption of metabolism.
||Results in loss of water from microbial cells.
||Destruction of DNA by gamma rays and high energy electron beams.
||Not widespread in routine sterilization.
||Used for sterilizing pharmaceuticals and medical and dental supplies.
||Damage to DNA by UV light
||Radiation not very penetrating.
||Control of closed environment with UV (germicidal) lamp.
Sources: (1) Microbiology, Fifth Edition, Tortora, Funke, Case; The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., 1995. (2) * Departments of The Army and The Air Force, Washington 25, D.C., 11 January 1956; Technical Manual No. 3-216, Air Force Manual, No. 355-6, respectively.
Test Your Water IQ
In the '80s, various hydrologists and other scientists, said that in 2000, there will be water
shortages and rationing. Furthermore, in the early '80s and throughout, as water became more scarce, there were Supreme Court decisions concerning states' water rights. That is, one state would divert a major river from going to feed downstream another state. This has led to water fights between states. Colorado, California, and others have and are still having their problems in obtaining pure water....at least enough of it. Other states are eying others, as far away as two or three over, for their water. Aquifers are now being polluted.
We can expect on going water fights, as water becomes scarce, reminiscent of the frontiers range and water rights wars. Learn now as to what you can do to obtain pure, clean water---you're gonna need it!
Main Source of Water Pollution in U.S.: The main source of water pollution in the United States is runoff from farm fields, roads, parking lots, and lawns.
True. Only 22 percent of those polled gave the right response. Nearly half believe that the most common polluters of our waterways are factories. And 15 percent believe that garbage dumping is the main cause.
Childhood Deaths Worldwide:
Worldwide, most childhood deaths are caused by microorganisms and other pollutants in water supplies.
True. Only 9 percent of those polled got this one right. The majority believes that starvation causes most childhood deaths.
Source: Audubon; July - August 1999; page 18.
However, the main advice being given: Don't depend on the computers to deliver accurate amounts of fluoride and/or chlorine. They may deliver too little, instead of too much, and YOUR water supply will not be purified, not over-purified. In testing the water utility problem, the one surfacing the most is "under" purification and that S - P - E - L - L - S contamination.
There is speculation that this being the case, over or under, regardless of the glitches, the cities that develop water utility glitches will immediately blame "bioterrorists" for the deaths of its citizens instead of admitting their own mistakes.
What's One To Do? .... Follow Your Nose...
It the water is too strongly smelling of Chlorine---remember, you can't taste or smell Fluoride, you can be pretty darn sure, "Houston, we have a problem." --- Don't use it. On the other hand, if contamination occurs, you won't know until you come down pretty darn sick.
"You know how to interpret the appearance of the sky but you cannot interpret the Signs of The Times." ---Mat. 16:3
Water Purification SchematicSuitable For Printing
Water Purification OutlineSuitable For Printing